Giora, R., Drucker, A., Fein, O. & Mendelson, I.  (In press). Default sarcastic interpretations: On the priority of nonsalient interpretationsDiscourse Processes. [PDF]
Giora, R., Kotler, N., and Shuval, N., Fein, O. (accepted) Know Hope: Metaphor, coherence, optimal innovation, and pleasure. [DOC]
Drucker, A., Fein, O., Bergerbest, D. & Giora, R. (2014). On sarcasm, social awareness, and gender. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research, 24(4), 551-573. [DOC]
Du Bois, W. J. & Giora R. (2014). From cognitive-functional linguistics to dialogic syntax. Cognitive Linguistics, 25(3), 351–357. [PDF]
Giora, R., Raphaely, M., Fein, O. & Livnat, E. (2014). Resonating with contextually inappropriate interpretations: The case of irony. Cognitive Linguistics25(3), 443-455. [PDF]

Giora, R. (2014). Cognitive and Social Aspects of Coherence. In T. Holtgraves (Ed.), Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, 141-153. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [DOC]

Giora, R. (2014). Literal vs. nonliteral language - Novelty matters. In T.Holtgraves (Ed.), Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, 330-347. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [DOC]

Giora, R. & Attardo, S. (2014). Irony. In S. Attardo (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Humor Studies397-401. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.[DOC]
Giora, R., Livnat, E., Fein, O., Barnea, A., Zeiman, R. & Berger, I. (2013). Negation generates nonliteral interpretations by default. Metaphor and Symbol, 28, 89–115. [PDF]
Givoni, Shir, Giora, Rachel and Dafna Bergerbest (2013). How speakers alert addressees to multiple meanings. Journal of Pragmatics, 48(1), 29-40. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel (2012). Happy New War: The role of salient meanings and salience-based interpretations in processing utterances. In: Hans-Jörg Schmid (Ed.), Cognitive Pragmatics (Handbook of Pragmatics, Vol. 4), 233-260. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [DOC]
Giora, Rachel (2012). Introduction: Different? Not Different? Metaphor and Symbol, 27, 1–3. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel, Gazal, Oshrat, Goldstein, Idit, Fein, Ofer, and Stringaris, K. Argyris (2012) Salience and context: Interpretation of metaphorical and literal language by young adults diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome. Metaphor and Symbol, 27, 22 - 54. [PDF] [Link to materials]
Giora, Rachel (2012). The psychology of utterance processing: Context vs Salience. In: Kasia Jaszczolt & Keith Allan (Eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics, 151 - 167. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel (2012). Interview (by Francesca Ervas). Humana.mente, 23, 189-196. [PDF]
Peleg, Orna and Giora, Rachel (2011). Salient meanings: The whens and wheres. In: Kasia M. Jaszczolt and Keith Allan (eds.) Salience and Defaults in Utterance Processing, 32 - 52. Mouton Series in Pragmatics, General Editor: Istvan Kecskes. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel (2011). "Your baby is no longer an infant". On metaphor as context. In M. Gluzman & O. Lubin (Eds.) Intertextuality in literature and culture, 235 - 247. Tel Aviv: Hakibbuz Hameuchad. (In Hebrew) [DOC]
Giora, Rachel (2011).   In defense of commonality. Scientific Study of Literature 1/1, 104-112. DOI 10.1075/ssol.1.1.11gio [PDF]
Giora, Rachel (2011). Will anticipating irony facilitate it immediately? In: Dynel, M. (ed.). The Pragmatics of Humour across Discourse Domains (19-31). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2010). On visual negation. isaac 2010, 13-17. (In Hebrew) [PDF]
Giora, Rachel, Fein, Ofer, Metuki, Nili, Stern, Pnina (2010). Negation as a metaphor-inducing operator. In: L. Horn ed., The Expression of Negation, 225-256. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter series "The Expression of Cognitive Categories" under the general editorship of Wolfgang Klein and Stephen Levinson. [PDF] [Link to materials]

Giora, R. and Stringaris, K. A. (2009). Neural substrates of metaphor. In: Hogan. P. (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences. 489-492, Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University Press [DOC].

Shuval, N. and Giora, R. (2009). Figurativeness, optimal innovation and pleasure. Oryanut ve'Safa 2, 111-127. (In Hebrew). [PDF]
Rachel Giora, Vered Heruti, Nili Metuki, & Ofer Fein (2009). "When we say no we mean no": Interpreting negation in vision and language. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 2222-2239  [PDF] [Link to materials]
Giora, Rachel, Ofer Fein, Ronie Kaufman, Dana Eisenberg, and Shani Erez. (2009). Does an "ironic situation" favor an ironic interpretation? In G. Brône & J. Vandaele (Eds.) Cognitive poetics. Goals, gains and gaps, 383-399. (Applications of Cognitive Linguistics series). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. [PDF] [responses and replies [Link to materials]
Giora, R. (2009). Irony. In: L. Cummings (ed.), Pragmatics Encyclopedia, 265-267. London: Routledge. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel (2008). Preface: Discourse Negation - Costs and effects. Intercultural Pragmatics 5/4, 403-404 [PDF]
Giora, Rachel, Zimmerman, Dana & Fein, Ofer (2008). How can you compare! On negated comparisons as comparisons. Intercultural Pragmatics 5/4, 501-516. [PDF]
Ariel, Mira and Giora, Rachel (2008). Playing with meaning. TAUTRENDS, 6-7. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2008) Is metaphor unique? In R. Gibbs, (ed.) The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought, 143-160. New York: Cambridge University Press. [PDF]
Peleg, Orna, Giora, Rachel & Fein, Ofer. (2008). Resisting contextual information: You can't put a salient meaning down. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics, 4 (1), 13-44. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2007). "And Olmert is a responsible man": On the priority of salience-based yet incompatible interpretations in nonliteral language. Cognitive Studies, 14(3), 269-281. [PDF]
Giora, Rachel, Fein, Ofer, Laadan, Dafna, Wolfson, Joe, Zeituny, Michal, Kidron, Ran, Kaufman, Ronie, and Shaham, Ronit (2007). Expecting irony: Context vs. salience-based effects. Metaphor and Symbol, 22, 119 - 146. [PDF] link to materials
Giora, R., Fein, O., Aschkenazi, K., and Alkabets-Zlozover, I. (2007). Negation in context: A functional approach to suppression. Discourse Processes 43, 153 - 172. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2007). Is Metaphor Special? Brain and Language 100, 111 - 114. [PDF]
Hasson, U. and Giora, R. (2007). Experimental Methods for Studying the Mental Representation of Language. In M. Gonzalez-Marquez, I. Mittelberg, S. Coulson and M. J. Spivey (eds.) Methods in Cognitive Linguistics (pp. 304-324) John Benjamins. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2007). "A good Arab is not a dead Arab - a racist incitement": On the accessibility of negated concepts. In I. Kecskes and L. R. Horn (eds.) Explorations in Pragmatics: Linguistic, Cognitive and Intercultural Aspects, 129-162. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [PDF]
Stringaris, K. A. , Medford, N., Giora, R., Giampietro, C. V.,  Brammer, J. M. & David, S. A. (2006). How metaphors influence semantic relatedness judgments: The role of the right frontal cortex. NeuroImage 33, 784 - 793. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2006). Anything negatives can do affirmatives can do just as well, except for some metaphors. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 981-1014. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2006). Is negation unique? On the processes and products of phrasal negation. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 979-980. [PDF]
Shuval, N. and Giora, R. (2005). Beyond figurativeness: Optimal innovation and pleasure. In Coulson, S. and Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (eds.) The literal and nonliteral in language and thought , 239-254. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang. [PDF]

Soroker, N., Kasher, A., Giora, R., Batori, G., Korn, C., Gil, M. and Zaidel, E. (2005). Processing of Basic Speech Acts following Localized Brain Damage: A New Light on the Neuroanatomy of Language. Brain and Cognition, 57, 214-217. [PDF]

Giora, R., Federman, S., Kehat, A., Fein, O., and Sabah, H. (2005). Irony aptness. Humor, 18, 23-39. [PDF]

Giora, R., Balaban, N., Fein, O. and Alkabets, I. (2005). Negation as positivity in disguise. In: Colston, H. L., and Katz, A. (eds.) Figurative language comprehension: Social and cultural influences (pp. 233-258). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Giora, R., Fein, O., Ganzi, J., Alkeslassy Levi, N. and Sabah, H.  (2005). On negation as mitigation: The case of negative irony. Discourse Processes, 39, 81-100. [PDF]

Giora, R. (2004). On interpreting: A tutorial. In: D. Ravid and H. Bat-Zeev Shyldkrot (eds.), Perspectives on language and language development (143-158). Dordrecht: Kluwer. [PDF]

Giora, R. (2004). On the Graded Salience Hypothesis. Intercultural Pragmatics, 1, 93-103. [PDF]

Giora, R., Fein, O., Kronrod, A., Elnatan, I., Shuval, N. and Zur, A. (2004). Weapons of mass distraction: Optimal Innovation and Pleasure Ratings. Metaphor and Symbol, 19, 115-141. [PDF][Link to materials]

Peleg, O., Giora, R. and Fein, O. (2004). Contextual strength: The whens and hows of context effects. In I. Noveck and D. Sperber (eds.), Experimental Pragmatics (pp. 172-186). Basingstoke: Palgrave. [PDF]

Giora, R. (2003). Recent trends in literal vs. figurative language research: The case of irony. Speech Pathology. (;

Giora, R. and Gur, I. (2003). Irony in conversation: salience and context effects. In B. Nerlich, Z. Todd, V. Herman and D. Clarke (eds.) Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meanings in Language and Mind (pp. 297-316). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2002). Optimal innovation and pleasure. In O. Stock, C. Strapparava and A. Nijholt (eds.). The April Fools' Day Workshop on Computational Humour, April 2002, ITC-irst, Trento (pp. 11-28). [PDF]

Giora, R. (2002). Literal vs. figurative language: Different or equal? Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 487-506. [PDF]

Giora, R. (2001). Irony and its discontent. In G. Steen and D. Schram (eds.). The Psychology & Sociology of Litrature (pp. 165-184). John Benjamins. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2001). Theorizing gender: Feminist awareness and language change. In B. Baron and H. Kotthoff (eds.). Gender in Interaction (pp. 329-347). John Benjamins. [PDF]
Giora, R. (2001). Masking one's themes: Irony and the politics of indirectness. In M. M. Louwerse's and W. van Peer (eds.). Thematics in psychology and literary studies (pp. 283-300). John Benjamins. [PDF]
Giora, R. and Balaban, N. (2001). Lexical access in text production: On the role of salience in metaphor resonance. In T. Sanders, J. Schilperoord and W. Spooren (eds.). Text representation (pp. 111-124). John Benjamins. [PDF]

Peleg, O., Giora, R. and Fein, O. (2001). Salience and Context Effects: Two are better than one.  Metaphor and Symbol, 16, 173-192. [PDF]

Zaidel E., Kasher A., Soroker N., Batori G., Giora R., and Graves D. (2000). Hemispheric contributions to pragmatics.  Brain and Cognition, 43, 438-443. [PDF]

Giora, R., Zaidel, E., Soroker, N., Batori, G. and Kasher, A. (2000). Differential Effect of Right and Left Hemispheric Damage on Understanding Sarcasm and Metaphor. Metaphor and Symbol, 15, 63-83. [PDF]

Ariel, M. & Giora, R. (2000). Pragmatics. Encyclopedia of Psychology. American Psychology Association. New York: Oxford University Press, (pp. 272-275). [PDF]

Giora, R. (1999). Irony as indirect negation: Dolly City a compassionate city. In Ben Porat, Z. (ed.). An overcoat of Benjamin: papers on literature for Benjamin Harshav, on his seventieth birthday (pp. 187-192). Porter Institute Tel Aviv university - Hakibutz Hameuchad. (In Hebrew). [PDF]

Giora, R. and Fein, O. (1999). Irony: Context and salience. Metaphor and Symbol, 14/4, 241-257. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1999). On the priority of salient meanings: Studies of literal and figurative language. Journal of Pragmatics 31, 919-929. [PDF]

Giora, R. and Fein, O. (1999). On understanding familiar and less-familiar figurative language. Journal of Pragmatics, 31, 1601-1618. [PDF]
Giora, R. and Fein, O. (1999). Irony comprehension: The graded salience hypothesis. Humor, 12/4, 425-436. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1998). The role of context: The case of irony. Xelkat Lashon Studies in Applied Linguistics Linguistic Education and Literacy, 26, 8-15. (In Hebrew)

Giora, R. (1998). When is Relevance? On the role of salience in utterance interpretation. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 11, 85-94. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1998). Irony. In J. Verschueren, J-O. Östman, J. Blommaert and C. Bulcaen (eds.). Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 1-21). John Benjamins. See also: [PDF] Reprinted in Östman, Jan-Ola and Jef Verschueren (eds.) (2011). Pragmatics in Practice, 159-176. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Giora, R. (1998). Discourse coherence is an independent notion: A reply to Deirdre Wilson's reply. Journal of Pragmatics, 29/1, 75-86. [PDF]

Wilson's reply [PDF]

Giora, R., Fein, O. and Schwartz, T. (1998). Irony: Graded salience and indirect negation. Metaphor and Symbol, 13/2, 83-101. [PDF]

Ariel, M. and Giora, R. (1998). A self versus other point of view in language: Redefining femininity and masculinity. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 129, 59-86. [PDF]

Ariel, M. and Giora, R. (1998). Power and cooperation: An analysis of impositive speech acts: Gender biases in the Israeli cinematic discourse. In N. Gerts, O. Lubin and J. Ne'eman (eds.). Fictive aspects of Israeli movies (pp. 204-179). Tel Aviv: Open University. [PDF]
Giora, R. (1997). Discourse coherence and theory of relevance: Stumbling blocks in search of a unified theory. Journal of Pragmatics, 27/1, 17-34. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1997). Understanding figurative and literal language: The graded salience hypothesis. Cognitive Linguistics, 8/3, 183-206. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1997). Feminist awareness and narrative change: Suicide and murder as transitional stages towards autonomy in women's protest writing. Israel Social Science Research, 12/1, 73-92. [Reprinted under the title Selbstmord und Mord in der Frauen-Protestliteratur. In: Hexenjagd. Weibliche Kriminalitat in den Medien. Hg. von Petra Henschel und Uta Klein. Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfrut/M. (pp. 178-195)]. [PDF]

Giora, R. and Lee, C-I. (1996). Written discourse segmentation: The function of unstressed pronouns in Mandarin Chinese. In J. Gundel and T. Fretheim (eds.). Reference and Reference Accessibility (pp. 113-140). Amsterdam: Benjamins. [PDF]

Giora, R., Meiran, N. and Oref, P. (1996). Identification of Written Discourse Topics by Structure Coherence and Analogy Strategies: General aspects and individual differences. Journal of Pragmatics, 26/4, 455-474. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1996). Fe/male interviewing styles in the Israeli media.  RASK Supplement, 1, 171-197. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1996). Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Review article of Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. 1990. Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Hillsdale N.J.: Erlbaum. Journal of Pragmatics, 26/3, 417-436. [PDF]

Giora, R. and Ne'eman, J. (1996). Categorical categorization in the narrative discourse: A semantic analysis of Il conformista. Journal of Pragmatics, 26/6, 715-735. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1995). On Irony and Negation. Discourse Processes, 19, 239-264. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1994). Analogy and processing of informative texts. In A. Wholl and E. Guterman (eds.). Principles and Tendencies in Reading Teaching (pp. 387-410). Tel Aviv: Open University Publishers. (In Hebrew) [PDF]
Giora, R. (1994). On the political message: Pretending to communicate. In H. Parret (ed.). Pretending to Communicate (pp. 104-123). Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter Verlag (Communication and Cognition Series). [PDF]

Giora, R. and Shen, Y. (1994). Degrees of narrativity and strategies of semantic reduction. Poetics, 22, 447-458. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1993). On the function of analogies in informative texts. Discourse Processes, 16, 591-611. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1992). The structural components of kitsch. Studio, 36, 10-12. (In Hebrew). [PDF]
Ariel, M. and Giora, R. (1992). Gender versus group relations: The analysis of impositive speech acts. In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz and B. Moonwomon (eds.). Locating Power: Proceedings of the Second Berkeley Women and Language Conference (pp. 11-22). April 4 and 5 Vol. 1. [PDF]

Ariel, M. and Giora, R. (1992). The Role of Women in Linguistic and Narrative change: A study of the Hebrew pre-state literature. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 2/4, 309-332. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1991). A probabilistic view of language. Poetics Today, 12/1, 165-179. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1991). On the cognitive aspects of the joke. Journal of  Pragmatics, 16/5, 465-486. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1990). On the so called evaluative material in informative texts. Text, 10/4, 299-320. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1988). On the Informativeness Requirement. Journal of Pragmatics, 12:5/6, 547-565. [Reprinted in A. Kasher (ed.) 1989. Cognitive Aspects of Language Use. Amsterdam: North Holland: 63-96; Reprinted in A. Kasher (ed.) Pragmatics: Critical concepts, Vol. 5. London and New York: Routledge, 1998 (pp. 468-486)]. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1986). Principles of text segmentation: The case of the formally unsegmented text. Journal of Literary Studies, 2/2, 15-28. [Reprinted in Hebrew Linguistics 28-30. A special issue on Stylistics and the Literary Text. 1990]. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1985). What's a coherent text? In E. Sözer (ed.) Text connexity, text coherence: aspects, methods, results (pp. 16 35). Hamburg: Buske. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1985). A text based Analysis of non narrative texts. Theoretical Linguistics, 12, 2/3, 115-135. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1985). Notes towards a theory of text coherence. Poetics Today, 6/4, 699-715. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1983). Functional Paragraph Perspective. In J. S. Petöfi and E. Sözer (eds.). Micro and macro connexity of texts (pp. 153-182). Hamburg: Buske. [PDF]

Giora, R. (1983). Segmentation and segment cohesion: On the thematic organization of the text. Text, 3/2, 155-182. [PDF]

Giora, Rachel (1981). Sentence ordering as a text dependent phenomenon. In S. Blum‑Kulka, Y. Tobin and R. Nir (eds.) Studies in Discourse Analysis, 263‑301. Jerusalem: Academon. (In Hebrew). [PDF]