Israel Cosmic Ray Center

affiliated to Tel Aviv University,

Technion and Israel Space Agency

operating the Israel-Italian

Emilio Segre’ Observatory

and World Data Center for Cosmic Rays

Annual Report No 3/2000



Prof. Lev I. DORMAN, 

Head of Israel Cosmic Ray Center 

and Emilio Segre’ Observatory 


 

November 27, 2000

Dedicated to the Memory 

of Prof. John SIMPSON 

(1916-2000)




 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




1. THE AIMS OF THE PROJECT FOR THE THIRD YEAR (FEBRUARY 2000-JANUARY 2001)

          The aims of the Project for the third year (February 2000-January 2001) are as follows: 

  ·  Development of the Emilio Segre’ Cosmic Ray Observatory.

  ·  Development of the ICRC Laboratory in Qazrin.

  ·  Establishment of a direct connection between the Emilio Segre’ Cosmic Ray Observatory and our Computer in MIGAL (Kiryat Shmona), and between MIGAL and the ICRC Laboratory at Qazrin. 

  ·  Establishment of the page in Internet of the Israel Cosmic Ray Center, with information on the Emilio Segre’ Cosmic Ray Observatory and on cosmic ray observations in real time scale.

  ·  Continue the research program in Cosmic Ray Astrophysics and Geophysics, participation in International Conferences and Symposia. 

  ·  Establishment of collaboration with other Cosmic Ray Observatories and data exchange in real time scale. 

  ·  Development of the analytical methods of forecasting anomalous Cosmic Radiation events, representing changes in the Interplanetary and Near-Earth environment. Such events could possibly be harmful to space-probes, to earth orbiting equipment, to air-travel, to electromagnetic communications and perhaps even to living beings on Earth. Phenomena which might indicate such developments include, for example, large solar flares, the impacting of energetic particles and Forbush-decreases connected with large geomagnetic disturbances. The network of observatories providing such early-warning services will form the “International Cosmic Ray Service”.

THE STAFF OF ICRC AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABORATORY IN QAZRIN 

  ·  The Israel Cosmic Ray Center was established in 1998, with affiliations to Tel Aviv University, to the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology) and to the Israel Space Agency (under the aegis of the Ministry of Science). The staff of the Israel Cosmic Ray Center is now as follows: 1. Prof. L.I. DORMAN - principal investigator, head of the Center and Observatory; 2. Dr. L.A. PUSTIL¢NIK - researcher, 3. Dr. I.G. ZUKERMAN - researcher. 

  ·  In 2000 the Laboratory was equipped with additional computers. The local network was set up, with a sufficient increase of the existing capacities of the memory and hard discs.

  ·  In 2000 we completed the foundation of direct connection in real time of the Emilio Segre’ Observatory with our Laboratory in Qazrin and with Internet (updated each one minute, see Appendix 1).

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISRAEL-ITALIAN EMILIO SEGRE’ OBSERVATORY 

  ·  In 2000 we continued to operate the Cosmic Ray Neutron Monitor in the Israel-Italy Emilio Segre’ Observatory (33°18.3¢N, 35°47.2¢E, 2020 m above sea level, cut-off rigidity for vertical direction Rc=10.8 GV). This Monitor works continuously and gives data for each minute in real time scale information on the counting rate of total neutron intensities and of the specific intensities for neutron multiplicities ³1, ³2, ³3, ³4, ³5, ³6, ³7 and ³8. 

  ·  The results of measurements – data taken at one minute intervals -- of cosmic ray neutron intensities at two separate sites, as well as similar one-minute data about the intensities relating to neutron multiplicities ³1,³2, ³3, ³4, ³5, ³6, ³7 and ³8 – all of this data has been computer-stored. Similar one-minute data relating to the atmospheric electric field, wind speed, air temperature and pressure outside the Observatory, as well as temperature and humidity inside the Cosmic Ray Observatory – have also been recorded.

  ·  Each month one-hour data of the Emilio Segre’ Observatory (short title ESOISR) is regularly sent to the World Data Center in Boulder (USA, Colorado) and to many Cosmic Ray Observatories in the world. In Appendix 1 are shown some examples of our data.

  ·  An automated electric power supply system, based on UPS and Diesel-generator, established in 1999, continued to work well in 2000. 

  ·  A direct, "real time" connection has been set of the Emilio Segre’ Observatory through MIGAL with the Central Laboratory in Qazrin and Internet (updated each 1 minute).

4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD DATA CENTER FOR COSMIC RAYS

  ·  In 1999 we prepared a full Catalog of the archive of the World Data Center for Cosmic Rays which was transferred from Sweden to Israel (see Appendix 2).

  ·  This full Catalog was sent to the World Data Centers in Boulder (USA, Colorado), in Russia (Moscow), and in Japan (Nagoya), and to several Cosmic Ray Observatories. 

  ·  Now this Catalog is updated to our set in Internet and can be used free with anybody.

5. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COLLABORATION WITH OTHER COSMIC RAY OBSERVATORIES AND DATA EXCHANGE IN REAL TIME 

        ·           In the first year of our Project a close scientific collaboration was established with the Rome Cosmic Ray Observatory (headed by Prof. N. Iucci and Dr. G. Villoresi) and with the group of Cosmic Ray Observatories located at Mt. Haleakala, Mt. Climax, and Mt. Huancayo, leaded by the University of Chicago and was headed by Prof. J.A. Simpson.

        ·           Now a close scientific collaboration was established with Moscow Cosmic Ray Observatory headed by Dr. V.G. Yanke and Dr. A.V. Belov, with Apatiti Cosmic Ray Observatory headed by Dr. E.V. Vashenyuk, with St. Petersburg Cosmic Ray Group lead by Prof. M.I. Tyasto (responsible for computer calculations of cosmic ray trajectories in the real geomagnetic field), with Erevan Cosmic Ray Group leaded by Prof. A. Chilingarian and Dr. V. Kh. Babayan and maintains two neutron monitors on Mt. Norambert (2000 m) and Mt. Aragaz (3250 m) in Armenia, with Mexico Cosmic Ray Observatory (2300 m, Rc=8.2 GV) leaded by Prof. J.F. Valdes-Galicia, with Lomnicky Stit Cosmic Ray Observatory in Slovakia (2634 m, Rc=3.9 GV) leaded by Dr. K. Kudela, with Oulu Cosmic Ray Observatory in Finland leaded by Prof. Pekka. Tanskanen and Prof. Kalevi Mursula (now leaded by Dr. Y. Usoskin). 

6. RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN COSMIC RAY ASTROPHYSICS AND GEOPHYSICS, PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA, SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

  ·  Our research activity in the third year of our Project was concentrated mainly on following problems: 

A. Development of methods of forecasting space dangerous phenomena, using cosmic ray data.

B. Investigation of gamma ray generation and cosmic ray nonlinear processes in solar and stellar winds. 

C. Investigation of cosmic rays - solar activity hysteresis phenomena and nonlinear processes in the Heliosphere.

D. Investigation of solar wind and cosmic ray nonlinear processes. 

E. Investigation of cosmic ray anisotropies and nonlinear processes. 

F. Calculation of coupling (response) functions for neutron monitors.

G. Investigation of atmospheric electric field effect in cosmic rays. 

H. Investigation of solar neutron propagation and “refraction” effect. 

I. Solar magnetic fields and solar neutrino problem, physics of solar interior and spin-flavor precession.

J. Investigation of cosmic ray meteorological effects on the basis of our experimental data.

K. Investigation of the preflare manifestations in the solar radio emission before solar flares.

L. Development of the percolation model of solar flare origin and solar cosmic ray acceleration processes.

In 2000 we prepared papers for oral and poster presentation, and took part in: 1. International Symposium ACE 2000 (USA, California, January 2000), 

2. EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000), 

3. COSPAR 33 (Poland, Warsaw, July 2000), 

4. International Symposium on the Outer Heliosphere (Germany, Potsdam, July 2000), 

5. International Conference First-S-RAMP (Japan, Sapparo, October 2000).

6. International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (Italy, Erice, November 2000)

        ·           Lev Dorman gave lectures "Variable Gamma Ray Sources: 1. Interactions of Flare Energetic Particles with Stellar Winds" and "Variable Gamma Ray Sources: 2. Interactions of Galactic Cosmic Rays with Stellar Winds" on the International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (Italy, Erice, November 2000), and reports on seminars in Israel and abroad. 

        ·           Lev Pustil’nik gave invited reports on the NASA/ESA Conference "Leonids 1999" (Tel-Aviv, March, 2000), and report at the Astrophysics Seminar of Tel Aviv University.

        ·           Our research activity in the third year of our Project is reflected in 35 papers and reports, among them 18 papers are published or accepted for publication in refereed Journals and refereed Proceedings, 17 are reported at International Conferences and Symposia. In Appendix 2 we present some preprints and reprints of our scientific publications.

7. LIST OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS IN REFEREED JOURNALS AND REPORTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA

7A. Papers Published or Accepted/Submitted for Publication in Refereed Journals or Refereed Proceedings in 2000 (or in 1999 after preparing Annual Report 2/1999).

7A1. Lev Dorman, 1999. “Interaction of flare energetic particles with solar and stellar wind plasma: expected space-time distribution of gamma-ray emissivity”, Plasma Astrophysics and Space Physics (eds. J. Buchner et al.), Kluwer Ac. Publ., Dordrecht/Boston/London, 613-624.

7A2. Lev Dorman, 1999. “Cosmic ray nonlinear processes in space plasma: applications to the dynamic heliosphere”, Astrophysics and Space Science264, 443-455.

7A3. Lev Dorman, 1999. “Angle distribution and time variations of gamma ray fluxes generated by galactic cosmic rays in solar and stellar winds”, Plasma Astrophysics and Space Physics (eds. J. Buchner et al.), Kluwer Ac. Publ., Dordrecht/Boston/London, 603-612.

7A4. Lev Dorman and Vjacheslav Shogenov, 1999. “Charged particle acceleration in space plasma with two types of scatterers”, Plasma Astrophysics and Space Physics (eds. J. Buchner et al.), Kluwer Ac. Publ., Dordrecht/Boston/London, 625-632.

7A5. L.A. Pustil'nik, 1999. "Solar flare phenomena as phase transition caused by frustation of current percolation", Astrophysics and Space Science264, 171-182.

7A6. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, and J.F. Valdes-Galicia, 2000. “Propagation of inclined solar neutrons: scattering, energy decrease, attenuation, and refraction effect”, in bookAcceleration and Transport of Energetic Particles Observed in the Heliosphere (Ed. R.A. Mewaldt et al.), AIP Conf. Proc. No 528, 173-176. 

7A7. Villoresi, G. ; Dorman, L. I. ; Iucci, N. ; Ptitsyna, N. G., 2000. “Cosmic ray survey to Antarctica and coupling functions for neutron component near solar minimum (1996-1997), 1, Methodology and data quality assurance”, J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 105 , No. A9 , p. 21,025-21,034.

7A8. Iucci, N. ; Villoresi, G. ; Dorman, L. I. ; Parisi, M., 2000. “Cosmic ray survey to Antarctica and coupling functions for neutron component near solar minimum (1996-1997), 2, Determination of meteorological effects “, J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 105 , No. A9 , p. 21,035-21,046

7A9. Dorman, L. I. ; Villoresi, G. ; Iucci, N. ; Parisi, M. ; Tyasto, M. I., Danilova, O. A. ; Ptitsyna, N. G., 2000. “Cosmic ray survey to Antarctica and coupling functions for neutron component near solar minimum (1996-1997), 3, Geomagnetic effects and coupling functions” J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 105 , No. A9 , p. 21,047-21,058..

7A10. Dorman Lev I., 2000. “Cosmic ray anisotropies in space”. In Towards the Millennium in Astrophysics, ed. M.M. Shapiro and J.P. Wefel, World Sci. Publ. Co., Singapore (accepted for publication).

7A11. P. Stoker, J. Clem, and L.I. Dorman, 2001. “Design of neutron monitors”, Space Science Rev. (accepted for publication).

7A12. J. Clem, and L.I. Dorman, 2001. “Response functions for neutron monitors”, Space Science Rev.(accepted for publication).

7A12. Dorman, L.I., 2000, "GeV Gamma Rays from Interaction of Flare Energetic Particles with Stellar Wind Matter" - Highlight Paper for 26th ICRC in AIP Conf. Proc. No. 516, (Ed. B.L. Dingus, D.B. Kieda, M.H. Salamon), 283-288.

7A13. Dorman L., L. Pustil'nik, A. Sternlieb, I. Zukerman, , 2001. Saving of satellites and spacecrafts from dangerous flare energetic particle events, 1. Automatically search of beginning by on-line one-min ground data. Advance in Space Research (submitted forpublication).

7A14. Lev Dorman, 2001. Saving of satellites and spacecrafts from dangerous flare energetic particle events, 2. Research programs and automatically forecast of expected flux and energy spectrum in next 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 and more hours. . Advance in Space Research (submitted forpublication).

7A15. Lev I. Dorman, 2001. Modulation region of galactic cosmic rays in the Heliosphere: estimation of dimension, radial diffusion coefficient, intensity out of region. Advance in Space Research (submitted forpublication).

7A16. L. Dorman, I. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2001. Solar activity-cosmic rays hysteresis phenomenon during cycle 22 and determination of modulation region dimension. Advance in Space Research (submitted for publication).

7A17. L. Dorman, N. Iucci, G. Villoresi, 2001. The residual modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the minimum of the cycle 22 and the unmodulated spectrum in the local interstellar medium. Advance in Space Research (submitted for publication).

7A18. Lev Dorman, 2001. Long-term variation of galactic cosmic rays in dependence of effective particle rigidity in the onset of cycle 23 and forecast of cosmic radiation in space and on the Earth for about 12 months. Advance in Space Research (submitted for publication).

7B. Reports at International Conferences and Symposia

7B1. L. I. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Murat, Y. Noter, L. A. Pustil'nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, I. G. Zukerman, 2000. The use of one-minute data of Emilio Segre Observatory (Israel) of total and different neutron multiplicities counting rates for automatically searching the start of dangerous flare energetic particle events. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S1-P14.

7B2. L. I. Dorman, 2000. Forecasting dangerous situations for spacecrafts and aircrafts caused by large solar energetic particle events. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S1-P33.

7B3. L. I. Dorman, N. Iucci, G. Villoresi, 2000. Continuous monitoring and forecasting of space weather by using on-line cosmic ray data from the world network of stations. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S2-P21.

7B4. L. I. Dorman, N. Iucci, N. G. Ptitsyna, G. Villoresi, 2000. Space weather impacts on the Earth: increasing of the frequency of myocardial infarctions, brain strokes and traffic accidents in Moscow and in St. Petersburg in periods of space magnetic storms associated with cosmic ray Forbush-decreases. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S2-P22.

7B5. L. I. Dorman, A. V. Belov, E. A. Eroshenko, N. Iucci, G. Villoresi, V. G. Yanke, I. G. Zukerman, 2000. Application of cosmic ray Forbush-effects research in investigations interplanetary moving disturbances and in forecasting of space dangerous phenomena. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S4-P24.

7B6. L. I. Dorman, 2000. Storm-time ring currents and cosmic rays: direct and inverse problems. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S8-P07.

7B7. L. I. Dorman, 2000. Cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere: direct and inverse problems. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper S18-P11.

7B8. L. I. Dorman, M. Murat, Y. Noter, A. Sternlieb, 2000. Impacts in electronics on spacecrafts caused by solar and galactic energetic particles: expected time variations and dependence of spacecraft position. The first S-RAMP Conference, Sapporo, Japan, Paper W2-P05.

7B9. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Cosmic rays and dynamic meteorology: influence of meteorological dynamic processes on cosmic ray atmospheric cascade, intensity and contents", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B10. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Cosmic rays and dynamic meteorology: possible influence of cosmic rays on meteorological dynamic processes", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B11. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Nuclear interactions of galactic cosmic rays with solar system plasmas: generation of gamma-rays from neutral pion decay", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B12. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Cosmic rays, cosmogenic nuclides, H-bomb explosions and determining of effective time exchange of carbon between biosphere and other natural planetary reservoirs", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B13. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, L. Pustil'nik, G. Villoresi, I. Zukerman2000. "Neutron monitor on-line one-minute data using for forecasting of great radiation hazard in space", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B14. L.I. Dorman and L.A. Pustil'nik, 2000. "On the probability of catastrophic radiation hazard in space and on the Earth from flare energetic particles", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B15. A. V. Belov, L.I. Dorman, E.A. Eroshenko, N. Iucci, N.G. Ptizina, G. Villoresi, V.G. Yanke, I.G. Zukerman, 2000. "Using of cosmic ray Forbush decreases as indicators of space dangerous phenomena and the problem of their forecast", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B16. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Cosmic ray nonlinear effects in the interplanetary space", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

7B17. L.I. Dorman, 2000. "Gamma rays from solar system plasmas generated by nuclear interactions of flare energetic particles", Report on EGS 2000 General Assembly (France, Nice, April 2000).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The staff of Israel Cosmic Ray Center thanks very much Prof. Yuval Ne¢eman for his constant attention and great help in the foundation and development of the Center and Emilio Segre’ Observatory; without this support our Project could not have been successful. Cordial thanks to our Italian colleagues Prof. Nunzio Iucci and Dr. Giorgio Villoresi, to the Director of Israel Space Agency Mr. Abi Hareven, to Dr. Michael Murat and the Head of the Import Department of TAU Avi Gurevich, to Shoshana Shalom, Yaira Zadok, Matilda Elron, and Ronit Nevo for their great help in solving a lot of difficult problems connected with the organization and operation of the Emilio Segre’ Cosmic Ray Observatory and the ICRC Laboratory at Qazrin.In the early stages of our Project we received important attention and help from the former Minister of Science Dr. Benjamin Begin, from the head of Department of the Ministry of Science Ms. Frida Soffer, Prof. David Eichler (Ben Gurion University), former heads of Physics Department of the Technion Prof. Gioro Shaviv and Prof. Moshe Moshe, Prof. Arnon Dar, Prof. Lev Pitaevskii, Prof. Aria Laor, Dr. Eretz Etzion, Major of Qazrin Sami Bar-Lev, Director-General of MIGAL Jacob Arzi, former Head of the Golan Research Institute Dr. G. Degani and Dr. G. Emdin, former Director of Golan Development Company Uri Meir. 

APPENDIX 1 TO THE ANNUAL REPORT 3/2000

INTERNET SITE OF ISRAEL COSMIC RAY CENTER AND EMILIO SEGRE' OBSERVATORY