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Reuven Tsur


mimic a young mother who says tenderly így("like that") or mais si("yes, indeed") to her child.
However, subjects who heard the films believed they heard an "i," despite the labialization, which ordinarily transforms [i] into [yl (as in French sure--RT), apparently on the basis of context and situation. Though the speakers deformed the habitual pronunciation of these vowels, their auditors, in decoding the phonological component of the message, re- established the intended phonemes, interpreting the distortion as an expressive manner of pronouncing the phoneme. In the decoding, the sound is broken up into two elements: [y]
[!][i] + expression of tenderness (Fónagy, 1971: 159).

The rounding of the lips can be considered as preparation for a kiss. Fónagy calls this "phonetic gesture" (1971: 160). This explains in part that the first component is perceived as a substance, the second, which is no less substantial than the first, as a "manner of pronouncing" (1971: 160). In this context, Fónagy speaks of "dual encodedness" (161). My claim is that in the recitation of metered verse there is a "triple encodedness". Sometimes, an overarticulated final stop consonant may be decoded as [p] (or [t], or [k] etc.) + an assertive, determined, firm attitude + the clear-cut articulation of the end of some prosodic or syntactic unit. Even who is reluctant to accept Fónagy's psychoanalytical explanations based on "the transfer of anal libido" (160) or "anal-sadistic cathexis" lending an authoritarian character, may discern some firm, determined, even authoritarian attitude in the speech of a person who tends to over-articulate the stop consonants. Stop consonants are abrupt, not continuous, aim at considerable accuracy, at a circumscribed point both in time and in place of articulation. Their overarticulation indicates control, exhibits strict, particular, and complete accordance with a standard, is marked by thorough consideration of minute details.
When we consider the particular articulatory gestures associated with each stop, some additional expressive potentials may become conspicuous. We will consider here only one of them. The overarticulation of bilabial consonants, mainly the abrupt oral stop [p] and affricate [pf] involves strong closure of the lips, followed by sudden opening. This articulatory gesture is very similar to spitting, and may be expressive of disgust or contempt. Thus, in Wittgenstein's term, there may be "aspect switching" between a determined, or contemptful, or disgusted attitude, depending on the semantic component of the utterance. Even the bilabial nasal [m] can, with some effort, be pronounced contemptfully, as when at the height of political polemics against the Israeli left, Aric Sharon used to pronounce "smol", the Hebrew word for "left", with extreme contempt.

A Brief Interpretation
In his opening speech of the play, Gloucester takes the audience into his full confidence. He tells about his treachorous plans, about his relentless self-perception, and provides the necessary historical background information to the play's action. He emerges as a charismatic figure, who can evoke an immediate, personal assent of the audiance to all his plots and villainies. This he does by his ironic


Fónagy (1971: 160) discusses in great detail the articulatory gesture that produces the glottal stop, and the relation between aggression and the contraction of the glottal sphincter.