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Bad Breath (halitosis) Research


What kinds of bacteria have been implicated in oral malodor?

Here is a partial list from the literature:

  • Prevotella intermedia (Kleinberg and Codipilly)

  • Fusobacterium nucleatum (Kleinberg and Codipilly; Persson et al., 1990 Niles and Gaffar)

  • Porphyromonas gingivalis (Kleinberg and Codipilly; Loesche and de Boever; Persson et al., 1990)

  • Porphyromonas endodontalis (Loesche and de Boever)

  • Prevotella loescheii (Loesche and de Boever; Persson et al., 1990)

  • Hemophilus parainfluenzae (?) (Kleinberg and Codipilly)

  • Stomatococcus muci

  • Treponema denticola (Persson et al., 1990; Chan; Loesche and de Boever)

  • Veillonella species (Kleinberg and Codipilly; Niles and Gaffar)

  • Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (Persson et al., 1990)

  • Micros prevotii (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Eubacterium limosum (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Centipeda periodontii (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Selemonad aremidis (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Eubacterium species (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Bacteriodes species (Persson et al., 1990);

  • Fusobacterium periodonticum (Persson et al., 1990)

  • Prevotella melaninogenica (Niles and Gaffar)

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae (Niles and Gaffar; Goldberg et al.)

  • Enterobacter cloacae (Niles and Gaffar)

  • Citrobacter species (Goldberg et al.)

  • Stomatococcus mucilaginus (J. Greenman, M.A. El-Maaytah, M.G. Hartley and S. McAloon; Proteolytic activity of Stomatococcus mucilaginus; abstract presented at 2nd International Workshop on Oral Malodor, Leuven, Belgium, Oct.
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