β-spectroscopy/Neutrino mass

    Itamar Levy, Instructor of the β-spectroscopy/neutrino mass experiment

High Energy Physics Lab (behind the Shenkar lobby) - Lab /
Kaplun 401 - Office

itamarl2@post.tau.ac.il   

03-6409262/6449

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Topics of the experiment
  3. How to prepare for the experiment?
  4. The experimental schedule
  5. Literature
  6. Links

 

Introduction

The measurement of the energy spectrum of beta particles emitted in radioactive decay is an important means of obtaining some spectroscopic information concerning the nucleus. Electrons may appear as a result of nucleon transformation (beta decay) or the ejection of atomic electrons (internal conversion). In internal conversion, the electrons are emitted in discrete energy groups corresponding to the electronic orbits. In beta decay the nuclear decay energy is shared between the electron, the recoiling daughter nucleus and a neutrino. In this situation, the energy of an individual electron cannot be determined, but rather only a maximum possible energy is fixed for a given decay. The measurement of this end-point energy and the shape of the energy spectrum can yield information on the decay schemes and quantum numbers of the states involved in the decay.

 

Topics of the experiment

  • Radioactive decays.
  • Particle detection methods and instruments.
  • Data acquisition systems.
  • Measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron in 204Tl decay.
  • Measurement of neutrino mass limit.

 

How to prepare for the experiment?

  1. At the beginning of the first week ("study" week) Please contact the experiment instructor.
  2. Read the experiment's instructions.
  3. Read the relevant literature: 
    1. A. Das and T. Ferbel, "Introduction to nuclear and particle physics", 2nd ed., World Scientific, River Edge N.J., 2003 (Chapters 2, 4, Section 5.4 and Chapter 7).
    2. K.S. Krane, "Introductory Nuclear Physics", John Wiley & Sons, 1988, (Chapter 9).
    3. W.N. Cottingham and D.A. Greenwood, "An introduction to nuclear physics", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986/2001 (Sections 3.5, 4.6-4.7, 12.1-12.4, 12.5 and Chapter 13).
    4. G. Lutz, "Semiconductor radiation detectors", Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999 (Sections 2.1-2.6, 3.1-3.2, 5.1-5.2).
    5. United states department of commerce, Tables for the Analysis of Beta Spectr , United states government printing office, Washington, 1952 (good explanation on Fermi function).
    6. ORTEC, Tutorial Information on Charged Particle Detectors , (a brief explanation on semiconductor detectors).
  1. Learn the experiment's schedule.
  2. Make sure you understand the experimental technique.
  3. Answer the preparation questions (in the experiment's instructions).
  4. Read the Lab's safety instructions, Safe handling of radioactive sources, and this.

 

The experimental schedule

  1. Written exam - Approximately one hour.
  2. Learning the experimental apparatus (NIM crate and standard, high-voltage bias supply, surface barrier detector's specification and data sheet, pre-amplifier, amplifier, the pulser and the scope).
  3. Learning the ADC specifications and interface to the computer.
  4. Calibration of the detector.
  5. Measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron in 204Tl decay.
  6. Determination of an upper limit for the neutrino mass by construction of a Kurie plot.

 

Literature

  1. A. Das and T. Ferbel, Introduction to nuclear and particle physics, 2nd ed., World Scientific, River Edge N.J., 2003 (chapters 2,4, section 5.4, chapter 7).
  2. W.N. Cottingham and D.A. Greenwood, An introduction to nuclear physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986 (Sections 3.5,4.6-4.7,12.1-12.5).
  3. R.E. Lapp and H.L. Andrews, Nuclear radiation physics, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs N.J., 1972 (sections 3.09-3.12).
  4. G. Bertolini and A. Coche (Eds.), Semiconductor detectors, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968 (section 2.2).
  5. United states department of commerce, Tables for the Analysis of Beta Spectr , United states government printing office, Washington, 1952.(Good explanation on Fermi function)
  6. K. Siegbahn (Ed.), Alpha- beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968 (vol.2 chapters 22,23,24(A-B)).
  7. G.D. Chase and J.L. Rabinowitz, Priniciples of radioisotope methodology, 3rd ed., Burgess, Minneapolis Mi., 1967.
  8. G.F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, 1989.
  9. K. Kleinknecht, Detectors for particle radiation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987 (sections 1.1-1.4,2.5).
  10. R.S. Gilmore, Single particle detection and measurement, Taylor & Francis, London, 1992.
  11. G. Lutz, Semiconductor radiation detectors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999.
  12. L. Rossi, P. Fischer, T.Rohe and N. Wermes, Pixel detectors from fundamentals to applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006.
  13. A.C. Melissinos and J. Napolitano, Experiments in modern physics, 2nd ed., Elsevier Science, London, 2003 (sections 8.2,8.5).
  14. Bart Van Zeghbroeck, Principles of Semiconductor Devices.
  15. K. Nakamura et al.(PDG), Passage of particles through matter, JP G 37, 075021, 2010 (section 27.4-Photon and electron interactions in matter).
  16. K. Nakamura et al.(PDG), Particle detectors at accelerators, JP G 37, 075021, 2010 (section 28.7-Semiconductor detectors).
  17. K. Nakamura et al.(PDG), Particle detectors for non-accelerator physics, JP G 37, 075021, 2010 (section 29.3-Large neutrino detectors).

 

Links

  1. S.Y.F. Chu, L.P. Ekstrom and R.B. Firestone, WWW table of radioactive isotopes (version 2.0).
  2. R.B. Firestone and L.P. Ekstrom, WWW table of radioactive isotopes (version 2.1).

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