The investigation of paleo-environment of the southern Arava using pollen records at Timna is spearheaded by Dr. Dafna Langutt (langgut@post.tau.ac.il) from the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University.




  1. To investigate changes in past vegetation and climate conditions in the south Arava area through  periods of mining and smelting of copper ores.
  2. To identify the type and the source of the plants that were used for fuel for metallurgical activity, and therefore also to identify the influence of humans on past vegetation in the area.


Past environmental conditions will by studied mainly based on a detailed palynological study in the area but also on the identification of other botanical remains (e.g. wood, charcoals).


T30 section



Sampling the section in the main slag mound at Site 30 for pollen analysis (2013). The section represents ~300 years of copper production in the Timna Valley (11th - 9th centuries BCE).