For an overview of present views on the topic see a recent collection of articles in Science in Context, 16 (3), Sept. 2003, and particularly the guest editor's introduction (on pp. 275-286):

Reviel Netz, "The History of Early Mathematics - Ways or Re-writing".

Calculating the Limits of Poetic License:
Fictional Narrative and the History of Mathematics

Leo Corry - Tel Aviv University