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Introduction to Philosophy of Science

Following a brief and systematic introduction that surveys different approaches to philosophy of science, the main bulk of the course is devoted to describing and analyzing historically the main attempts to understand science philosophically since the 17th century. These, as time permits, will include discussions of the philosophies of science of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes in their religious contexts; the problems presented to each by Newton's physics; the challenge to Cartesian rationalism posed by the differential calculus; that posed to the empiricist tradition by Hume's analysis of causation; the philosophical significance of the post-Newtonian parting of ways in physics between the analytical and realist schools; the birth of instrumentalism in the former; the philosophical problem of the emergence sciences; Kant's philosophy of science; the new post-Humean British empiricists; the philosophical crisis of the downfall of classical physics at the turn of the 20th century, and the new schools of philosophy of science that emerged thereon.

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Philosophy of Psychoanalysis

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This seminar on Freuds theory of psychoanalysis will examine the underlying philosophical themes and structure of his thought, which stretch between his positivist commitments to a science of the mind and a humanists understanding of self identity. Through a close reading of Freudian texts, we will emphasize four topics: 1) Freuds success/failure of establishing psychic cause; 2) the structure and dynamics of the psyche; 3) the paradox of free will/determinism in the analytic setting, which leads to the moral structure of psychoanalysis, and 4) the character of the self as the subject of analysis.

Readings:
We will read excerpts from Freuds primary writings:
Week 1 The clinical setting: Studies on Hysteria (1895) and Three Essays on Sexuality
(1905)
Week 2 Introduction to the unconscious: Interpretation of Dreams
Week 3 Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1915-1917) and the
meta-psychology papers (1915-17)
Week 4 The logic of psychoanalysis: Case of an Obsessional Neurosis (1909)
Week 5 Who is the subject? The Ego and the Id (1923)
Week 6 Totem and Taboo (1913) and Civilization and its Discontents (1930)
Week 7 Future of an Illusion (1927) and Moses and Monotheism (1939)

Philosophy of Psychoanalysis
This seminar on Freuds theory of psychoanalysis will examine the underlying philosophical themes and structure of his thought, which stretch between his positivist commitments to a science of the mind and a humanists understanding of self identity. Through a close reading of Freudian texts, we will emphasize four topics: 1) Freuds success/failure of establishing psychic cause; 2) the structure and dynamics of the psyche; 3) the paradox of free will/determinism in the analytic setting, which leads to the moral structure of psychoanalysis, and 4) the character of the self as the subject of analysis.

Readings:
We will read excerpts from Freuds primary writings:
Week 1 The clinical setting: Studies on Hysteria (1895) and Three Essays on Sexuality
(1905)
Week 2 Introduction to the unconscious: Interpretation of Dreams
Week 3 Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1915-1917) and the
meta-psychology papers (1915-17)
Week 4 The logic of psychoanalysis: Case of an Obsessional Neurosis (1909)
Week 5 Who is the subject? The Ego and the Id (1923)
Week 6 Totem and Taboo (1913) and Civilization and its Discontents (1930)
Week 7 Future of an Illusion (1927) and Moses and Monotheism (1939)

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Agassi, Joseph:
(a) Science in Flux, D. Reidel, 1975.
(b) Theoretical Bias in Evidence: A Historical Sketch, Philosophica 31, 1983.

Bacon, Francis:
Novum - Organum (1620) in Works, ed. by Spedding & Ellis & Heath, 7 vols., 1858-1861.

Ben-Israel, Isaac:
Philosophy and Methodology of Intelligence: The Logic of Estimate Process", Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 4, No. 4, October 1989.

Duhem, Pierre:
La Theorie Physique: Son Objet, Sa Structure, 1906, trans. by P. P. Wiener: The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, Princeton, 1954.

Feyerabend, Paul K.:
(a) Against Method, New Left Books, 1977.
(b) Realism, Rationalism & Scientific Method - Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
(c) Problems of Empiricism - Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Fleck, Ludwig:
Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact, Ed. by. T.J. Trenn and R.K. Merton, Chicago/London, 1979 (first edition: Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache? Einfrung in die Leher vom Denkstil und Denkkollektiv, B. Schwabeund Co., Verlabuchhndlung, Basel, 1935.

Lakatos, Imre:
(a) Proofs and Refutations - The Logic of Mathematical Discovery, ed. by J. Worral & E. Zahar, Cambridge University Press, 1976.
(b) The Methodology of Scientific Research Programs - Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1, ed. by J. Worral & G. Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1978.
(c) Mathematics, Science and Epistemology - Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, ed. by J. Worral & G. Currie, Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Lakatos, Imre & Allen Musgrave (eds.):
Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Popper, Sir Karl Raimund:
(a) The Open Society and Its Enemies, Fifth edition, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966 (first published in 1945).
(b) The Poverty of Historicism, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.
(c) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Harper Torchbooks, 1968 (first published by Hutchinson in 1959).
(d) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, Harper Torchbooks, 1976 (first published by Routledge & Kegan Paul in 1963).
(e) Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, Clarendon Press, 1972.
(f) Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography, Fontana, 1976 (First published as Autobiography of Karl Popper in The Library of Living Philosophers: The Philosophy of Karl Popper, ed. Paul Arthur Schilpp, Open Court, 1974).

Quine, Willard Van Orman
From a Logical Point of View, Harper Torchbooks, 1961.

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. (1785), " . , , 1973.


Jones, Reginald Victor:
Reflections on Intelligence, Galimor, London, 1989.

Rawls, John:
A Theory of Justice, Oxford University Press, 1973

III. -
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Bernstein, Jeremy (ed.):
Hitlers Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall, American Institute Of Physics, 1995.

Bernstein, J. and D. Cassidy:
Bomb Apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945, Physics Today, Vol. 48, No. 8, Part 1, August 1995, pp. 32-36.

Bohr, Niels:
Documents relating to 1941 Bohr-Heisenberg meeting,
http://www.nbi.dk/NBA/papers/introduction.htm

Cornwell John:
Hitlers Scientists, Penguin/Viking, 2003

Frank, F. C. (ed. and intro.):
Operation Epsilon: the Farm Hall Transcripts, Institute of Physics, 1993.

Heisenberg, Werner:
A Lecture on Bomb Physics: February 1942, intro. by D. Cassidy, trans. by W. Sweet, Physics Today, Vol. 48, No. 8, Part 1, August 1995, pp. 27-30.

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(*) Richard Feynman, Feynman Lectuers on Computation, Penguin Books, 1996
(*) Roger Penrose, The New Emperors Mind, Vintage, 1990
(*) Martin Davis, The Universal Computer The Road from Leibniz to Turing, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000
- Leff and Rex (eds.), Maxwells Demon, Adam Hilger 1990
- Claude E. Shannon, Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, University of Illinois Press, 1949.
- J. Bekenstein, Black Holes and Entropy, Phys. Rev. D7, pp. 2333-2346, 1972
- Jean van Heijenoort, (ed.), From Frege to Gdel - A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879-1931, Harvard University Press, 1967.
- Kurt Gdel, Die Vollstndigkeit der Axiome des logischen Funktinenkalkls, Monatshefte fr Mathematik und Physik 37, 1930, 349-360; translated as The Completeness of the Axioms of the Functional Calculus of Logic, in van Heijenoort 1967, 582-591.
- Jack Copeland (ed.), The Essential Turing, Oxford University Clarendon Press, 2004
- , , , 1999

(*)



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