Josephus Flavius (or after his Hebrew name, Joseph ben Mattathiahu), surnamed the "Jewish historian of the Second Temple period", was born in 37 CE in Jerusalem. He became the commander of the Jewish Revolt in Galilee in the year 66 CE, but after his troops were besieged at Jotapata, he was taken prisoner by the Roman general Vespasian who became emperor in 69 CE. After the destruction of Jerusalem (70 CE) he moved to Rome. Here he concluded his historical works. The most important ones are the Jewish War and the Jewish Antiquities. In his War he gives an account of Jewish history from the Maccabean revolt to the Destruction of Jerusalem (70 CE) and Masada (73 CE). Antiquities is a detailed history of the Jews from the very beginning to the outbreak of the Great Revolt in 66 CE. Other writings of Josephus Flavius are dedicated to autobiographical reports and polemical works against anti-Semitism. He died in Rome around 100 CE.

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