Volume 25 Number 1 1998


Contents:


The Pastoral Component in the Economy of Hill Country Sites during the Intermediate Bronze and Iron Ages: Archaeo-Ethnographic Case Studies
   Aharon Sasson

The Tel Te'enim and Sha'ar Ephraim Project
   Ronit Oren and Na’ama Scheftelowitz

Appendices A–D

Sha'ar Ephraim South: A Late Natufian Campsite
   Ran Barkai
Faunal Remains from Middle Bronze Age Tel Te'enim
   Liora Kolska Horwitz
A Human Skull from Tel Te'enim
   Patricia Smith
Human and Animal Remains from the Burial Cave at Sha'ar Ephraim Central
   Patricia Smith and Liora
   Kolska Horwitz

The Siloam Tunnel Revisited
   Stephen Rosenberg

A Note on the Date of the ‘Great Wall’ of Tell en Nasbeh
   Haya Katz


The Pastoral Component in the Economy of Hill Country Sites during the Intermediate Bronze and Iron Ages: Archaeo-Ethnographic Case Studies


Aharon Sasson

Pastoralism plays a basic role in the subsistence economy of all ancient Near Eastern societies. Its importance is evident in most traditional societies to the present-day. The term pastoralism refers to the branch of the economy concerned with animal husbandry, mainly of sheep, goats and cattle, but also camels and pigs. The importance of raising animals is due to the variety of products which they provide.

Much has been written of pastoralism in the ancient Near East. It can be said that ever since archaeologists first attempted to reconstruct socio-economic processes, they also attempted to understand early pastoralism. Pastoral societies have been attributed with too great an influence: various models have connected pastoralism with every political and socio-economic process that has taken place in Eretz-Israel from the 4th to the 1st millennium B.C.E. and even later, from being the catalyst that brought about the collapse of the urban systems, to enticing the populations which disappeared during the dark ages.

This study analyses the pastoralist component in settled societies in the Central Hill Country of Eretz-Israel. The subject of pastoralism is analysed quantitatively as a local phenomenon.


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