LIST OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA

 

8A. MONOGRAPHS

 

8A1. L.I. Dorman, 2002 or 2003. Cosmic Rays in the Ground and in Atmosphere, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (prepared according to the Contract and submitted for publication).

8A2. L.I. Dorman, 2003. Cosmic Rays in the Magnetosphere and in Space, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (in preparation according to the Contract).

 

8B. PAPERS PUBLISHED IN REFEREED JOURNALS OR REFEREED PROCEEDINGS IN 2002 (OR PUBLISHED IN THE END OF 2001, AFTER PREPARING ANNUAL REPORT 4/2001).

 

8B1. Dorman Lev I., 2001. “Variable gamma ray sources, 1. Interactions of flare energetic particles with solar and stellar winds”. In Astrophysical Sources of High Energy Particles and Radiation, ed. M.M. Shapiro et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 219-230.

8B2. Dorman Lev I., 2001. “Variable gamma ray sources, 2. Interactions of galactic cosmic rays with solar and stellar winds”. In Astrophysical Sources of High Energy Particles and Radiation, ed. M.M. Shapiro et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 231-243.

8B3. Lev I. Dorman, 2001. “Cosmic ray long-term variation: even-odd cycle effect, role of drifts, and the onset of cycle 23”, Adv. Space Res., 27, No. 3, 601-606.

8B4. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, and G. Villoresi. 2001. “Hysteresis between solar activity and cosmic rays during cycle 22: the role of drifts, and the modulation region”, Adv. Space Res., 27, No. 3, 589-594.

8B5. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, and G. Villoresi, 2001. “Time lag between cosmic rays and solar activity; solar minimum of 1994-1996 and residual modulation”, Adv. Space Res., 27, No. 3, 595-600.

8B6. Lev I. Dorman, 2001. “Expected Gamma-Ray Fluxes from Interactions of Flare Energetic Particles with Solar Wind Matter”, in Gamma-Ray Astrophysics, 2001 (ed. S. Ritz et al.), AIP Conf. Proc., Vol. 587, 628-632.

8B7. Lev I. Dorman, 2001. “Interactions of Flare Energetic Particles with Stellar Wind Matter: Expected Gamma-Ray Fluxes from Local Stars”, in Gamma-Ray Astrophysics, 2001 (ed. S. Ritz et al.), AIP Conf. Proc., Vol. 587, 633-637.

8B8. L.I. Dorman, 2001. “Possible Using of Gamma Ray Measurements for Monitoring and Prediction of Radiation Hazard”, in 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz 28-31 May 2001, pp. 457-462.

8B9. L.I. Dorman, 2001. “Solar Neutrino Fluxes through South, Equatorial, and North Heliolatitude Zones, and their Connection with Effective Solar Activity Parameters”, Proc. 19th Intern. Conf. on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, Sudbury, Canada, in Nuclear Physics B91, Paper P14.

8B10. L.I. Dorman, 2001. “Effective Solar Activity Parameters and Effective Heliolatitudes for each Run in Homestake Experiment, and Correlation with Solar Neutrino Fluxes”, Proc. 19th Intern. Conf. on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, Sudbury, Canada, in Nuclear Physics B91, Paper P15.

8B11. Lev I. Dorman, 2002. “Solar Energetic Particle Events and Geomagnetic Storms Influence on People’s Health and Technology; Principles of Monitoring and Forecasting of Space Dangerous Phenomena by Using On-Line Cosmic Ray Data”, in Proc. 22nd ISTC Japan Workshop on Space Weather Forecast in Russia/CIS (ed. Y. Muraki), Nagoya University, June 5-6, 2002, Vol. 2, 133-151.

 

 

 

8C. PAPERS SUBMITTED IN REFEREED JOURNALS OR REFEREED PROCEEDINGS AND (AFTER REFEREE PROCESS) ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION

 

8C1. L.I. Dorman, 2002. "Modulation Region of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere: Estimation of Dimension, Radial Diffusion Coefficient, Intensity out of the Region". Physics of the Outer Heliosphere (in Adv. Space Res. ), accepted for publication after referee process.

8C2. Lev Dorman, Lev Pustil'nik, Abraham Sternlieb, and Igor Zukerman, 2002. "Using Ground-Level Cosmic Ray Observations for Automatically Generating Predictions of Hazardous Energetic Particle Levels”, Adv. Space Res., (accepted for publication after referee process).

8C3. Lev Dorman and Igor Zukerman, 2002. "Initial Concept for Forecasting the Flux and Energy Spectrum of Energetic Particles Using Ground-Level Cosmic Ray Observations”, Adv. Space Res., (accepted for publication after referee process).

8C4. A. Danilova, L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, N. Ptizina, M. Tyasto, and G. Villoresi, 2002 or 2003. “Cosmic ray cut-off rigidities for latitude survey in 1996-1997”, Geomagnetizm and Aeronomiya (accepted for publication after referee process).

8C5. A. Danilova, L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, N. Ptizina, M. Tyasto, and G. Villoresi, 2002 or 2003. “Effective cosmic ray cut-off rigidities accounting inclined direction and penumbra”, Izvestia of Russian Academy of Sci., Ser. Phys. (accepted for publication after referee process).

8C6. L.I. Dorman, 2003. “Cosmic rays and Space Weather”, in The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background: Theory and Observations (ed. Norma Sanchez), Kluwer Academic Publishers (accepted for publication after referee process).

 

8D. PAPERS, SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION IN REFEREED JOURNALS.

 

8D1. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, L.A. Pustil'nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, and I.G. Zukerman, 2002 or 2003. "Atmospheric Electric Field Effect in Cosmic Rays According to Observations on Emilio Segre’ Observatory" J. Geophys. Res.  (submitted for publication).

 

8E. PAPERS, REPORTED ON THE EGS2002 GENERAL ASSEMBLY (NICE, APRIL 2002)

 

8E1. L.I. Dorman, 2002. Radiocarbon generation by cosmic rays and elements transport, mixing and exchange on the Earth”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper NP13-1FR5P-025 (p. 297).

8E2. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Cosmic rays and dynamical meteorology, 2. Snow effect in different multiplicities according to neutron monitor data of Emilio Segre’ Observatory”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper OA11-1MO5P-035 (p. 184).

8E3. L.I. Dorman, O.A. Danilova, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, N.G. Ptitsyna, M.I. Tyasto, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Cosmic rays in the magnetosphere, 1. Cut-off rigidities at different azimuth and zenith angles for latitude survey in December 1996-March 1997”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST13-1MO5P-065 (p. 243).

8E4. L.I. Dorman, O.A. Danilova, N. Iucci, M. Parisi, N.G. Ptitsyna, M.I. Tyasto, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Cosmic rays in the magnetosphere, 2. Apparent cut-off rigidities and coupling functions”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST13-1MO5P-066 (p. 243).

8E5. L.I. Dorman, 2002. “Solar wind and cosmic ray modulation in the outer Heliosphere: CR nonlinear processes in the interplanetary plasmas”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST14-1ER5P-055 (p. 245).

8E6. L.I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and space weather, 1. Automatically search of great solar energetic particle event beginning”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-043 (p. 223).

8E7. L.I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and space weather , 2. Automatically determination of solar energetic particle spectrum”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-044 (p. 223).

8E8. L.I. Dorman, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and space weather , 3. Automatically determination of diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, time of ejection and energy spectrum in source”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-045 (p. 223).

8E9. L.I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Cosmic ray monitoring and space dangerous phenomena, 1. Search of features in cosmic rays what can be used for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-46 (p. 223).

8E10. A.V. Belov, L.I. Dorman, E.A. Eroshenko, N. Iucci, H. Mavromichalaki, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, V.G. Yanke, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Cosmic ray monitoring and space dangerous phenomena, 2. Methods of cosmic ray using for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-047 (p. 223).

8E11. A.V. Belov, L.I. Dorman, E.A. Eroshenko, L.I. Gromova, N. Iucci, A.E. Levitin, N.G. Ptitsyna, M.I. Tyasto, G. Villoresi, V.G. Yanke, 2002. “Relation of the “kosmos series” satellites’ malfunctions with space weather and with malfunctions from other spacecrafts”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-018 (p. 222).

8E12. A.V. Belov, L.I. Dorman, V.M. Dvornikov, E.A. Eroshenko, Yu.S. Fedorov, S.I. Nosov, V.E. Sdobnov, B.A. Shakhov, V.G. Yanke, 2002. “Model of the solar cosmic ray propagation and its use in the short time prognosis of the proton enhancements”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST2-1WE5P-048 (p. 223).

8E13. L.I. Dorman, 2002. “Gamma ray generation by interactions of flare energetic particles with solar wind matter”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-098 (p. 259).

8E14. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and hysteresis phenomenon, 1. Approaches to the convection-diffusion and drifts long-term modulations for NM energies”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR4A-006 (p. 258).

8E15. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and hysteresis phenomenon, 2. Results for odd solar cycles 19 and 21”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-099 (p. 259).

8E16. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and hysteresis phenomenon, 3. Results for even solar cycles 20 and 22”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-100 (p. 259).

8E17. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and hysteresis phenomenon, 4. Comparison of time-lags for odd and even solar cycles, relative role of drifts”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-101 (p. 259).

8E18. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Neutron monitor observations and hysteresis phenomenon, 5. Results for solar minimum 1994-1996”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-102 (p. 259).

8E19. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Cosmic ray satellite data and hysteresis phenomenon 1. Expected relative role of convection-diffusion and drift mechanisms for small energies”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-103 (p. 259).

8E20. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Cosmic ray satellite data and hysteresis phenomenon 2. Proton fluxes”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-104 (p. 259).

8E21. L.I. Dorman, N. Iucci,. M. Parisi, G. Villoresi, 2002. “Cosmic ray satellite data and hysteresis phenomenon 3. Alpha-particle fluxes”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST19.02-1FR5P-105 (p. 259).

8E22. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, 2002. “Cosmic rays and clouds, 1. Formation of lead mesoatoms in neutron monitor by soft negative muons and expected atmospheric electric field effect in the cosmic ray neutron component”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST20-1WE5P-101 (p. 261).

8E23. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, Yu. Ne’eman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman, 2002. “Cosmic rays and clouds, 2. Atmospheric electric field effect in different neutron multiplicities according to Emilio Segre’ Observatory one minute data”, EGS 2002 Conference, Scientific Programme, Nice, April 2002, Paper ST20-1WE5P-102 (p. 261).

 

8F. Papers, reported on the Ringberg Workshop on Astro-Plasma Physics, Ringberg, Germany, June 2002.

 

8F1. L.I. Dorman, 2002. “Energetic particles in the heliosphere: formation of hysteresis phenomenon by convection-diffusion and drift mechanisms”, Ringberg Workshop on Astro-Plasma Physics, Ringberg, Germany, June 2002.

8F2. L.I. Dorman, 2002. “Flare energetic particle interaction with stellar and solar wind plasma: generation of gamma rays”, Ringberg Workshop on Astro-Plasma Physics, Ringberg, Germany, June 2002.

8F3. L.I. Dorman, 2002. Cosmic ray nonlinear processes in solar and stellar wind plasmas”, Ringberg Workshop on Astro-Plasma Physics, Ringberg, Germany, June 2002.

 

8H. Papers, reported on the International Conference Solar Wind 10 (Italy, Pisa, June 2002), and submitted for publication in the refereed Proc. of Solar Wind 10.

 

8G1. Lev I. Dorman, 2002 or 2003. “Using Galactic Cosmic Ray Observations for Determination of the Heliosphere Structure During Different Solar Cycles”, Proc. of Solar Wind 10  , Paper SI-36, (submitted for referee process and publication).

8G2. Lev I. Dorman, 2002 or 2003. Particle Rigidities According to Data of Hysteresis Phenomenon (Cycle 22)”, Paper SI-40, (submitted for referee process and publication).

8G3. Lev I. Dorman, Nunzio Iucci , Mario Parisi , Giorgio Villoresi, 2002 or 2003. “Solar Wind Properties on the Basis of Small Energy Particle Satellite Data, 1. Expected Relative Role of Convection-Diffusion and Drift Mechanisms for Small Cosmic Ray Energies , Paper SI-41, (submitted for referee process and publication).

8G4. Lev I. Dorman, Nunzio Iucci , Mario Parisi , Giorgio Villoresi, 2002 or 2003. “Solar Wind Properties on the Basis of Small Energy Particle Satellite Data, 2. Proton Fluxes, Paper SI-42, (submitted for referee process and publication).

8G5. Lev I. Dorman, Nunzio Iucci , Mario Parisi , Giorgio Villoresi, 2002 or 2003. “Solar Wind Properties on the Basis of Small Energy Particle Satellite Data, 3. Alpha-Particle Fluxes , Paper SI-43, (submitted for referee process and publication).

8G6. Lev I. Dorman, 2002 or 2003. “Possible Using Gamma Ray Observations for Monitoring of Solar Wind Matter Distribution, Paper SIV-17, (submitted for referee process and publication).

 

8H. Papers, reported on the 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR34 (Houston, October 2002), and submitted to the refereed journal Advance in Space Research.

 

8H1. L. I. Dorman, I. V. Dorman, 2003. "Cosmic rays, thunderstorm clouds, and possible influence on climate, 1. Formation of lead mesoatoms in neutron monitor by soft negative muons and expected atmospheric electric field effect in the cosmic ray neutron component", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H2. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, Y. Ne’eman, M.A. Parisi, L.A. Pustil’nik, F. Signoretti, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. "Cosmic rays, thunderstorm clouds, and possible influence on climate, 2. Atmospheric electric field effect in different neutron multiplicities according to Emilio Segre' Observatory one minute data" , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H3. L. I. Dorman, 2003. "Determination of cosmic ray intensity variations in the last 400 years on the basis of solar activity data with taking into account convection-diffusion and drift mechanisms: applications to radiocarbon and climate change data”, 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H4. L. I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A.Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman ,  2003. "Great SEP events and space weather, 1. Experience of automatically search of event beginning; probabilities of false and missed alerts ", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H5. L. I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A.Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman ,  2003. " Great SEP events and space weather , 2. Automatically determination of solar energetic particle spectrum ", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H6. L. I. Dorman, 2003. "Great SEP events and space weather, 3. Automatically determination of diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, time of ejection and energy spectrum in source”, 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H7. L. I. Dorman, 2003. "Great SEP events and space weather , 4. Principles of on-line radiation hazard forecasting in space, in magnetosphere, and in the atmosphere”, 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H2. L.I. Dorman, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. "NM-MT network and space dangerous phenomena, 1. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H8. A.V. Belov, L.I. Dorman, Eroshenko, E.A., N.Iucci, M.A. Parisi, L.A. Pustil’nik, A. Sternlieb, G. Villoresi, V.G.Yanke, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. " NM-MT network and space dangerous phenomena, 2. Examples of cosmic ray using for forecasting of major geomagnetic storms", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H9. L.I. Dorman for the INTAS 810 team, 2003. "Different space weather effects in malfunctions of the high and low orbital satellites " , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H10. L.I. Dorman, 2003. "The inverse problem for determining of energy spectrum and total flux of SEP in the source, time of ejection into solar wind, and propagation parametersin the interplanetary space on the basis of ground and satellite CR measurements, 2. The second step: estimations in the frame of the anisotropic diffusion model", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H11. L.I. Dorman, 2003. " The inverse problem for determining of energy spectrum and total flux of SEP in the source, time of ejection into solar wind, and propagation parameters in the interplanetary space on the basis of ground and satellite CR measurements, 1. The first step: estimations in the frame of simple model of isotropic diffusion", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H12. L.I. Dorman, 2003. "The inverse problem for determining of energy spectrum and total flux of SEP in the source, time of ejection into solar wind, and propagation parameters in the interplanetary space on the basis of ground and satellite CR measurements, 3. The third step: estimations in the frame of the kinetic propagation model", 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H13. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. "Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 1. Approaches to the convection-diffusion and drift long-term modulations for high energies " , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H14. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. " Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 2. Results for odd solar cycles 19 and 21” 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H15. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003. "Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 3. Results for even solar cycles 20 and 22 " , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2003, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H16. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003.  " Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 4. Comparison of time-lags for odd and even solar cycles, relative role of drifts " , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H17. L.I. Dorman, I.V. Dorman, N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G. Zukerman , 2003.  “Galactic CR in the Heliosphere according to NM data, 5. Comparison of results for solar minimum and maximum  2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H18. L.I. Dorman,  N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G., 2003.  "Hysteresis phenomenon according to CR satellite data, 1. Expected relative role of drift and convection-diffusion mechanisms for small energies”, 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H19. L.I. Dorman,  N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G., 2003.  "Hysteresis phenomenon according to CR satellite data, 2. Results on the basis of proton fluxes data " , 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).

8H20. L.I. Dorman,  N. Iucci, M.A. Parisi, G. Villoresi, I.G., 2003.  " Hysteresis phenomenon according to CR satellite data, 3. Results on the basis of alpha-particle fluxes data " 2nd World Space Congress and COSPAR, Houston, October 2002, Adv. Space Res. (submitted for publication).