By Prof. Lev DORMAN



Lecture 1. Cosmic rays as phenomenon in the Universe, main properties and classification of CR and its variations.

          1.1. Historical introduction: discovery of CR, discussion on its origin, discovery in CR positrons, muons, pions, strange and other elementary particles, discovery of EAS and multiple particle generation.

          1.2. Many aspects of CR research: elementary particle physics, astrophysics, solar physics, geophysics, archeology, geology, meteorology, atmospheric electricity, problem of ozone layer, lower ionosphere and radio wave propagation, possible application for prediction of space dangerous phenomena.

          1.3. Space plasma, particle acceleration, two maximums in energy particle distribution function, cosmic rays (CR) as universal phenomenon, CR and second low of thermodynamics.

          1.4. Super-high energy CR and its possible metagalactic origin.

          1.5. Galactic CR: energy spectrum, isotopic and chemical composition, solar and stellar anisotropy, energetics, possible sources.

          1.6. Solar and stellar CR (flare energetic particles): neutral and charged particles, energy spectrum, isotopic and chemical composition, anisotropy, energetics, possible acceleration mechanisms.

          1.7. Interplanetary CR (interplanetary energetic particles, accelerated in the Heliosphere).

          1.8. Magnetospheric CR (magnetospheric energetic particles, accelerated in planetary rotating magnetospheres of the Earth, Jupiter, Saturn and others).

          1.9. CR time variations and its classification, secondary CR, integral multiplicity and coupling functions.

Lecture 2. Experimental methods of CR research.

          2.1. Long-time ground measurements of CR intensity by Compton type ionization chambers, by muon telescopes, by Simpson type neutron monitors and neutron supermonitors.

          2.2. Long-time measurements of CR intensity, spectrum and chemical composition on balloons.

          2.3. CR latitude surveys: using the Earth as giant magnetic spectrograph; experimental determination of coupling functions.

          2.4. Long-time underground measurements of CR intensity.

          2.5. Long-time measurements of very high energy CR by EAS arrays; Auger Project.

          2.6. CR world network stations as multi-directional giant CR space probe for high and very high energies.

          2.7. Measurements of small energy CR: energetic spectrum, isotopic and charge composition; measurements on satellites, local space probes, Ulysses, and on space probes moved to the boundary of the Heliosphere.


Lecture 3. CR and cosmogenic nuclides.

          3.1. Introduction and classification, cosmogenic integral multiplicity and coupling function.

          3.2. Production rate and contents of cosmogenic nuclides in space.

          3.3. Production rate and contents of cosmogenic nuclides in dust.

          3.4. Production rate and contents of cosmogenic nuclides in astrophysical objects without atmospheres.

          3.5. Time-variation and coupling functions for cosmogenic nuclide

production rate in the moved astrophysical objects without atmospheres.

          3.6. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Moon’s samples and meteorites.

          3.7. Production rate and contents of cosmogenic nuclides in atmospheres of stars and planets.

          3.8. Production rate and local coupling functions for cosmogenic nuclide production rate in the vertical column of the atmosphere (vertical mixing).

          3.9. Planetary mixing in the atmosphere and planetary coupling functions for cosmogenic nuclide production rate.

          3.10. CR and time variations of cosmogenic nuclide contents: two-reservoir model of elements mixing on the planet.

          3.11. CR and time variations of cosmogenic nuclide contents: five-reservoir model of elements mixing on the planet.

          3.12. Radiocarbon method and radiocarbon local and planetary coupling functions. Integral radiocarbon multiplicities for primary protons and primary high-energy gamma-quants.

          3.13. Be-10 method.

          3.14. Main cosmogenic nuclide results: discovery of sufficient CR variations in the past, connected with great changes of geomagnetic field, with solar activity cycles, with local and possible distant Supernova explosions.


Lecture 4. CR in the atmosphere.

          4.1. CR propagation through the atmosphere, formation of meson-nuclear and electromagnetic cascades.

          4.2. Generation by primary CR in the atmosphere charged and neutral pions, muons, secondary gamma-rays, electrons and positrons, neutrino, neutrons, Cherenkov radiation, stable and unstable cosmogenic nuclides.

          4.3. Integral multiplicity for different secondary CR and calculations of coupling functions. The dependence of integral multiplicity from zenith angle of arriving primary particle.

          4.4. CR influence on the lower ionosphere and radio-wave propagation.

          4.5. On the role of CR in the natural balance of ozone layer.

          4.6. On the role of CR in formation of air electrical conductivity.


Lecture 5. CR meteorological effects.

          5.1. General theory of CR meteorological effects; meteorological coefficients for integral multiplicities.

          5.2. Theory of barometric and temperature effects in muon component.

          5.3. Theory of barometric and temperature effects in neutron monitor counting rate: on the role of mesoatoms, generated in neutron monitor by small energy negative muons.

          5.4. Humidity, wind and gravity CR effects.

          5.5. CR charged particle acceleration and deceleration by atmospheric electric field and effects in muon component and in neutron monitor counting rate.

          5.6. Barometric and temperature effects of EAS frequency.


Lecture 6. CR in geomagnetic field.

          6.1. Dipole approximation and Stermer theory, cut-off rigidities in dependence of geomagnetic latitude, zenith and azimuth angles of arriving CR particles.

          6.2. Real geomagnetic field, internal and external sources, time variations, Gauss coefficients, International Geomagnetic Field Models.

          6.3. Trajectory calculations for antiprotons, started from the Earth; penumbra and effective cut-off rigidities.

          6.4. Radiation zones and magnetospheric electric currents, change during storms, influence on effective cut-off rigidities.

          6.5. Interplanetary shock wave interaction with magnetosphere, CR variations of geomagnetic origin.

          6.6. Influence of geomagnetic field on CR trajectories, acceptance cones, coupling functions and global method of determining CR distribytion function out of magnetosphere.

          6.7. Method of spectographic equations and separation of CR variations of atmospheric and geomagnetic origin.

          6.8. Global-spectrographic method of determining CR distribution function out of magnetosphere.


Lecture 7. CR propagation in the Heliosphere, long-term modulation and hysteresis effects.

          7.1. Kinetic of CR in moving space plasma with frozen in regular and turbulence magnetic field.

          7.2. Diffusion approximation of CR propagation and acceleration in moving space plasma with frozen in regular and turbulence magnetic field.

          7.3. Anisotropic and isotropic CR diffusion in solar wind with spiral magnetic field disordered by shock waves, moving magnetic  clouds, Alfven turbulence.

          7.4. Long-term CR modulation, 11- and 22-year variations, hysteresis effects, and dimension of the Heliosphere.

          7.5. Solar activity and long-term CR modulation parameters, calculations of long-term CR variations in the last few hunred years.


Lecture 8. Short-term CR variations, Forbush-decreases and precursory effects.

          8.1. Seasonal and 27-day CR variations.

          8.2. Interplanetary shock waves and magnetic clouds, origin of CR Forbush-decreases.

          8.3. CR scintillations and its possible origin.

          8.4. CR precursory effects and possibility of CR data using for prediction of great geomagnetic storms connected with Forbush-decreases.


Lecture 9. CR anisotropies and gradients in the interplanetary space.

          9.1. Convection-diffusion and drift CR anisotropies in the interplanetary space.

          9.2. Theory of CR anisotropic diffusion and statistical properties of CR anisotropies, distribution function of CR gradients.

          9.3. North-South CR anisotropy and its long-term variation.

          9.4. CR anisotropies and interplanetary neutral current sheet.

          9.5. Separation of convection-diffusion and drift CR anisotropies, dependence from particle energy, determination of CR gradients perpendicular to equatorial plane.


Lecture 10. CR propagation and acceleration processes and nonlinear effects in space plasma.

          10.1. CR pressure effect.

          10.2. CR kinetic stream instability effect.

          10.3. Influence of CR pressure on solar wind propagation, Mach number and formation of terminal shock wave.

          10.4. Influence of CR kinetic stream instability effect on CR modulation in the outer Heliosphere.

          10.5. Self-consistent problem of solar wind propagation and cosmic ray modulation in the Heliosphere.

          10.6. Galactic wind driving by CR and nonlinear effects in halo.

          10.7. Nonlinear effects in CR sources.

          10.8. CR acceleration by shock waves and nonlinear effects.

          10.9. CR acceleration in magnetic field reconnection regions and nonlinear effects.

          10.10. CR acceleration in turbulence magnetized plasma and nonlinear effects.

          10.11. CR propagation and acceleration in space plasma with scatterers of different regular speeds and nonlinear effects.


11. Solar flare energetic charged particles (solar CR).

          11.1. Experimental data on solar CR, energy spectrum, isotopic and chemical composition.

          11.2. Statistical properties of solar CR events.

          11.3. Solar flare phenomenon and charged particle acceleration mechanisms.

          11.4. Solar CR propagation in the interplanetary space.

          11.5. Solar CR propagation in the geomagnetic field.

          11.6. Solar CR propagation in the atmosphere.

          11.7. Radiation hazard of great solar CR events.

          11.8. On the possibility of prediction of dangerous for people and technology great solar CR events.


12. Solar flare energetic neutrons.

          12.1. Prediction of solar energetic neutron phenomenon and attempts of its discovery.

          12.2. Energetic neutron generation in interactions of flare energetic charged particles with matter of solar atmosphere; generation of gamma-rays.

          12.3. Neutron decay and solar energetic neutron propagation through interplanetary space.

          12.4. Energetic solar neutron propagation through the Earth's atmosphere: vertical arriving.

          12.5. Energetic solar neutron propagation through the Earth's atmosphere: inclined arriving, scattering and "reflection" effect.


13. CR relativistic electrons and radio-astronomy.

          13.1. CR electrons origin: primary and secondary.

          13.2. CR electron propagation and acceleration, radio-wave emission.

          13.3. Radio-wave emission from solar flares.

          13.4. Radio-wave emission distribution of our Galaxy.

          13.5. Radio-wave emission from other astronomical objects.


14. CR and gamma-astronomy.

          14.1. Mechanisms of gamma-ray generation by CR.

          14.2. Gamma-ray emission from solar flares.

          14.3. Gamma-ray emission in our Galaxy.

          14.4. Gamma-ray emission from other astronomical objects.

          14.5. Gamma-ray generation by flare energetic particles in solar and stellar winds.

          14.6. Gamma-ray generation by galactic CR in solar and stellar winds.


15. Unsolved problems in CR research and CR applications.

          15.1. CR and neutrino astronomy.

          15.2. The problem of super high-energy CR.

          15.3. The problem of of metagalactic CR.

          15.4. The problem of relict CR.

          15.5. On the search of new hypotetic particles in CR.

          15.6. Possible CR applications in tecnology.

          15.7. Foundation of International CR Service and CR using for prediction of space dangerous phenomena.



Note 1. This course is based on lectures given by Prof. Lev Dorman in Kazakh State University in 1957-1963, in Irkutsk State University in 1963-1965, in Moscow State University in 1965-1991, in Kabardino-Balkar State University in 1967-1990, in Nagoya University (Japan) in  1989, in Astrophysical Department in Sacle (Paris) in 1989, 1993, in University of Calgary (Canada) in 1990-1991, in University of Chicago in 1991-1993, in University of New Mexico in 1992-1994, , in UNAM (Mexico) in 1990, 1995-1997, in Rome University "Sapienza" in 1992-1995, in University "Roma Tres" in 1996-1997.


Note 2. This course is based mainly on monographes:

1. L.I. Dorman, Cosmic Ray Variations, Moscow, 1957 (translation on English published in USA in 1958);

2. V. L. Ginzburg and S. I. Syrovatsky, Origin of Cosmic Rays, Moscow, 1963.

3. L.I. Dorman, Cosmic Ray Variations and Space Research, Moscow, 1963;

4. L.I. Dorman, Geophysical and Astrophysical Aspects of Cosmic   Rays, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam (In series "Progress in          Physics of Cosmic Ray and Elementary Particles",ed. by     J.G.Wilson and S.A.Wouthuysen, Vol. 7), 1963;

5. Dorman L.I. and Miroshnichenko L.I., Solar Cosmic Rays.   FIZMATGIZ, Moscow, 1968. English translation published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Science Foundation in 1976 (TT 70-57262/ NASA TT F-624),          Washington, D.C.;

6. Dorman L.I., Smirnov V.S. and Tyasto M.I., 1971. Cosmic Rays in the Earth's Magnetic Field. FIZMATGIZ, Moscow

7. Dorman L.I., Acceleration Processes in Space. VINITI, Moscow (in series "Summary of Science", Astronomy, Vol. 7), 1972.

8. Dorman L.I., Meteorological Effects of Cosmic Rays. NAUKA, Moscow, 1972.

9. Dorman L.I., Gushchina R.T., Smart D.F. and Shea M.A., Effective Cut-Off Rigidities of Cosmic Rays. NAUKA, Moscow (in Russian and in English), 1972.

10. Velinov P., Nestorov G., Dorman L., Cosmic Ray Influence on Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation. Bulgaria Academy of Sciences Press, Sofia, 1974.

11. Dorman L.I., Cosmic Rays: Variations and Space Exploration. North-Holland Publ.Co., Amsterdam, 1974.

12. Dorman L.I., Variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays. Moscow State         University Press, Moscow, 1975.

13. Dorman L.I., Experimental and Theoretical Principles of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics. FIZMATGIZ, Moscow, 1975.

14. Dorman L.I., Cosmic Rays of Solar Origin. VINITI, Moscow (in series "Summary of Science", Space Investigations, Vol.12), 1978.

15. Dorman L.I., Pimenov I.A. and Satsuk V.S., Mathematical Service of Geophysical Investigations on the Example of Cosmic Ray Variations. NAUKA, Moscow, 1978.

16. Dorman L.I., Libin I.Ya. and Blokh Ya.L., Scintillation Method of Cosmic Ray Investigation. NAUKA, Moscow, 1979.

17. Alania M.V. and Dorman L.I.,1981. Cosmic Ray Distribution in the Interplanetary Space. METSNIEREBA, Tbilisi.

18. Dorman I.V., Cosmic Rays:  Historical Outline, Moscow, NAUKA, 1981.

19. Dorman L.I. and Kozin I.D., Cosmic Radiation in the Upper Atmosphere. FIZMATGIZ, Moscow, 1983.

20. Alania M.V., Dorman L.I., Aslamazashvili R.G., Gushchina R.T. and Dzhapiashvili T.V., Galactic Cosmic Ray Modulation by Solar Wind. METSNIEREBA, Tbilisi, 1987.

21. Dorman  I.V., Cosmic Rays, Accelerators and New Particles, Moscow, NAUKA, 1989.

22. Berezinskii V.S., Bulanov V.S., Ginzburg V.L., Dogel V.A., and Ptuskin V.S., Cosmic Ray Astrophysics, Moscow, 1990.


 Note 3. This course is based also on papers published in Proc. of Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf. (each two years) and papers published in scientific journals.