List of  Publications

A. Books


1. Seliger, H. & Shohamy, E. 1989. Second Language Research Methods. Oxford University Press.

2. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1999. The languages of  Israel: Policy, ideology and practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

3. Shohamy, E. 2001. The power of  tests: A critical perspective of  the uses of  language tests.


4. Shohamy, E. in preparation. The hidden agenda of  language policy. Routledge (to be completed, December 2003)



5. Ackerman, W., Shohamy, E., West, J. & Zisenwine, D. (editors), 1984. A World Survey of  Jewish Educational Curricula: The State of  the Art. The Israeli -Diaspora Institute.

6. Shohamy, E. & Walton, R. 1992. Assessment for Feedback:Testing and Other Strategies. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IO.

7. Lambert, R. and Shohamy, E. 2000. Foreign Language Policy and Pedagogy John Benjamin Press.

8. Cooper, R., Shohamy, E. and Walters J, 2001. Language Education. Volume in honor of  Bernard Spolsky, John Benjamins Press.



B. Articles - in refereed journals

1. Shohamy, E. 1982. “Predicting Speaking Prof iciency from Cloze Tests: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Test Substitutions”. Applied Linguistics, 3, 1, 161-171.

2. Shohamy, E. 1982. “Affective Considerations in Language Testing”. Modern Language Journal. 66,1, 3-17.

3. Shohamy, E. 1982. “The Cloze Procedure and its Applicability for Testing Hebrew as a Foreign Language”. Hebrew Annual Review, 101-114.

4. Shohamy, E. 1983. “The Stability of  the Oral Prof iciency Trait on the Oral Interview Speaking Tests”. Language Learning, 33, 4, 527-539.

5. Politzer, R., Shohamy, E. & McRoarty, M. 1983. “Validation of  Linguistic and Communicative Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs”. Bilingual Review, vol. x, no. 1, 3-20.

6. Shohamy, E. 1983. “Rater Reliability of  the Oral Interview Speaking Test”. Foreign Language Annals.16, 3, 219-222.

7. Shohamy, E. 1984. “Does the Testing Method Make a Difference? The Case of  Reading Comprehension”. Language Testing, 1, 2, 147-70.

8. Shohamy, E., Reves, T. & Bejerano, Y. 1986. “Introducing a New Comprehensive Test of  Oral Prof iciency”, English Language Teaching Journal. 40, 3, 212-220.

9. Nevo, D. & Shohamy, E. 1986. “Evaluation Standards for the Assessment of  Alternative Testing Methods: An Application”. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 12, 2, 149-158.

10. Shohamy, E. 1988. “A Proposed Framework for the Testing of  Oral Prof iciency”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 10, 165-179.

11. Shohamy, E., Gordon, C., Kenyon, D., & Stansfield, C. 1989. “The Development and Validation of  a Semi-Direct Test for Assessing Oral Prof iciency in Hebrew”. Bulletin of  Higher Hebrew Education. 4,1, 23-44.

12. Shohamy, E. 1989. “Evaluating Competence and Performance in the Foreign Language Classroom”. English Teachers’ Journal. 39, 20-26.

13. Olshtain, E., Shohamy, E., Kemp, J., Chatow, R. 1990. “Factors Predicting Success in EFL among Culturally Different Learners”. Language Learning. 40,1, 23-44.

14. Shohamy, E. 1990. “Language Testing Priorities: A Different Perspective”. Foreign Language Annals. 23,5, 385-393.

15. Shohamy, E. 1991. “Discourse Analysis and Language Testing”. Annual Review of  Applied Linguistics. 11, 115-131.

16. Shohamy, E. 1991. “The Hebrew Speaking Test: An Example of  International Cooperation in Test Development and Validation”. AILA Review. 7, 83-95.

17. Shohamy, E. & Inbar. O. 1991. “Construct Validation of  Listening Comprehension Tests: The Effect of  Text and Question Type”. Language Testing. 8,1, 23-40.

18. Shohamy, E. 1991. “ConnectiTesting and Learninin the Classroom and on the Program Level”. The Northeast Annual Report. 154-176.

19. Shohamy, E. 1991. “International Perspectives of  Language Testing and Systems and Policy”. ACTFL Annual Review of  Foreign Languages. The American Council on the Teaching of  Foreign Languages, 16, 91-107.

20. Shohamy, E., Gordon, C. & Kraemer, R. 1992. “The Effect of  Raters’ Background and Training on the Reliability of  Direct Writing Tests”. Modern Language Journal 76,1,7-33.

21. Shohamy, E. 1992. “Beyond Prof iciency Testing: A Diagnostic Feedback Testing Model for Assessing Foreign Language Learning”. Modern Language Journal. 76, 513-21.

22. Shohamy, E. 1994. “The Validity of  Direct versus Semi-Direct Oral Tests”. Language Testing. 11, 2. 99-123

23. Shohamy, E. 1995. “Performance Assessment in Language Testing”. Annual Review of  Applied Linguistics. 188-211.

24. Shohamy, E., Donitza-Schmidt, S and Ferman, I. 1996. “Test Impact Revisited: Washback Effect Over Time”. Language Testing. 13, 3, 298-317.

25. Shohamy, E. 1997. “Testing Methods, Testing Consequences: Are they Ethical? Are they Fair?” Language Testing, 14, 3, 340-49.

26. Shohamy, E. 1998. “Critical language testing and beyond”. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 24, 4, 331-345.

27. Spolsky, B. & Shohamy, E. 1999. “Language in Israeli Society and Education”. International Journal of  the Sociology of  Language 137, 93-114.

28. Jennings, M., Fox J,. Shohamy, E. Graves, B. 1999. The effect of  choice on test takers’ scores in language tests. Language Testing. 15,4.

29. Shohamy, E. 2000. Interfaces of  language testing and second language acquisition, revisited. System.

30. Shohamy, E. 2001. Democratic assessment as an alternative. Language Testing vol. 18, no. 4, 373-391.



C. Chapters in books

31. Shohamy, E. 1980. “Inter rater Reliability of  the Oral Interview and Concurrent Validity with Cloze Procedure in Hebrew”.94-105 in A.S. Palmer, P.J.M. Groot and G. Trosper (eds.) The Construct Validation of  Communicative Tests: An Introduction. Washington: Teachers of  English to Speakers of  Other Languages.

32. Shohamy, E. 1983. “Inter-rater and Intra-Rater Reliability of  Oral Interview and Concurrent Validity with Cloze Procedure”. 229-236 in J. Oller (ed.) Issues in Language Testing Research. Newbury House.

33. Shohamy, E. 1983. “Six Methods for Testing Reading Comprehension”. 77-94 in Wesche, M. and DeBrisay, M. (eds.) Proceedings of  the 5th Language Testing Colloquium. Ottawa.

34. Shohamy, E. 1984. “The Hebrew Language Curriculum in Jewish Sxchools”. In Ackerman, W. Shohamy, E., West, J,. and Zisenwine, D. (eds.) A World Survey of  Jewish Educational Curricula: The State of  the Art. The Israeli -Diaspora Institute.

35. Shohamy, E. 1984. “Input and Output in Language Testing” 159-166 in Culhane, T., Klein Braley, C., and Stevenson, d. Occasional Paper, Practice and problems in language testing.

36. Shohamy, E. 1985. “An Alternative Model for Assessing Language Prof iciency at the End of  Secondary School”. 149-156 in Kohonen, V., Klein-Braley, C. Y von Essen, H. (eds.) Practice and Problems in Language Testing. no. 8, AFINLA (Finnish Association for Applied Linguistics).

37. Shohamy, E., Reves, T. & Bejerano, Y. 1985.133-144 in Kohonen, V., von Essen, H., and Klein Braley, C. (eds.) Practice and problems in language testing “From Testing Research to Educational Policy: Introducing a New Comprehensive Measure of  Oral Prof iciency” AFINLA (Finnish Association for Applied Linguistics).

38. Shohamy, E. 1992. “The Connection between Testing and Learning”. 1-28 in Shohamy E. & Walton, R. (eds.) Assessment for Feedback: Testing and other Strategies. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, IO.

39. Shohamy, E. 1993. “The Exercise of  Power and Control in the Rhetorics of  Testing”. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies, X, 48-63.

40. Shohamy, E. 1993 “The Power of  Tests: The Impact of  Language Tests on Teaching and Learning”. NFLC Occasional Papers, Washington DC.

41. Shohamy, E. 1993. “A Collaborative/Diagnostic Feedback Model for Testing Foreign Languages.” 185-202 in Douglas D. and Chappelle C. (eds.) A new Decade of  Language Testing Research.Teachers of  English to Speakers of  Other Languages, 185-202.

42. Shohamy, E. 1994. “Issues of  Language Planning in Israel: Language and Ideology”. 131-142 in Lambert, R. Language Planning Around the World: Contexts and Systemic Change. National Foreign Language Center. Washington DC .

43. Shohamy, E. 1994. “The Exercise of  Power and Control in the Rhetorics of 

Testing”. 23-38 in Sajaavara, K. (ed.) Language Testing: New Openings. Jyvaskyla University

44. Shohamy, E. 1994. “The use of  language tests for power and control”. 57-72 in J. Alatis (ed.) Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

45. Shohamy, E. 1994. “The Role of  Language Tests in the Construction and Validation of  Second Language Acquisition Theories”. 133-142 in Tarone, E., Gass, S. and Cohen A. (eds.) Research Methodology in Second Language Acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Pubilshers. Hillsdale, New Jersey.

46. Shohamy, E. 1995. “Language Testing: Matching Assessment Procedures with

Language Knowledge”. 142-160 in Birenbaum M. & Dochy, F., (eds.) Alternatives in Assessment of  Achievements, Learning Processes and Prior Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Boston, MA..

47. Shohamy, E. 1996. “Competence and Performance in Language Testing”. 136-151 in Brown G. and Masmlijaer K. and K. Williams, (ed.) Performance and Competence in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.

48. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1996. “Israel”. 55-60 in Peter Dickson, P. and Cummings, A. (eds.) Prof iles of  Language Education in 25 Countries: Overview of  Phase 1 of  the IEA Language Education Study, Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.

49. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1997. “Planning Foreign Language Education: An Israeli Perspective”.99-111in de Bot K. and Bongaerts, T. (eds.) Perspective on Foreign Language Policy: Studies Honour of  Theo van Els. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

50. Shohamy, E. 1998. “Assessment in Early Age: Foreign Language Abilities of  Early Language Learners”. 185-197 in M. Met (ed.) Critical issues in early second language learning.

51. Shohamy, E. 1998. “Evaluation of  Learning Outcomes in Second Language Acquisition: A Multiplism Perspective”. 238-261 in Byrnes H. (ed.) Learning Foreign and Second Languages. MLA’s Teaching Languages, Literatures and Cultures series.

52. Shohamy, E. 1998. “Alternative Assessment in Language Testing: Applying a Multiplism Approach”. 99-114 in Li, E.S.L. and James G. (eds.) Testing and Evaluation in Second Language Education. Language Center. Hong Kong, University of  Science and Technology, p. .

53. Shohamy, E. 1998. The Great Debate: TESOL is a Science, Not an Art. Journal of  Imagination in Language Learning, vol. V. 8-26.

54. Shohamy, E. 1998. “How Can Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition Benefit from each other: The Case of  Discourse “. 156-176 in Bachman, L. and Cohen, A. Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research

55. Shohamy, E. 1998. “Language tests as de facto educational and linguistic policies”. 23-42 in Berry, V. and McNeill A. (ed.) Policy and practice in language education. The University of  Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

56. Shohamy, E.1998. “Inside the “black box” of  classroom language tests”. Studies Anglica Posnaniensia XXXIII, 343-352.(special issue in honor of  Kari Sajaavara).

57. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1999. “The dynamics of  Israeli language policy”. Washington,DC: The National Foreign Language Center. John Hopkins University.

58. Shohamy, E. 1999. “Fairness in Language Testing” 85-89 in Kunnan, A. (ed.) Fairness and Validation in language Assessment. Cambridge University Press

59. Shohamy, E. 1999. “Language and Identity of  Jews in Israel and in Diasopra”. 79-99 in D. Zisenwine and D. Sher (eds.) Studies in Jewish Culture: Identity and Language. School of  Education, Tel Aviv University.

60. Shohamy E. and Spolsky, B. 1999. “An Emerging Language Policy fIsrael: From Monolingualism to Multlilingualism”?169-184 in Weber, Peter J. (Hg.) Contact + Conflict: Language planning and minorities. Plurinigua XXI.

61. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 2000. “Hebrew after a century of  RLS activities”. In H. Fishman, ed., Reversing Language Shift II. .

62. Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 2000 “Language policy”. In Lambert, R. and Shohamy, E. (eds.) Foreign Language Policy and Pedagogy, (in press).

63. Connor-Linton, J. and Shohamy, E, 2000. “Register Validation, Oral Prof iciency, Sampling and the Promise of  Multi Dimensional Analysis”. In Biber D. Variations in language. (in press)

64. Inbar, O., Donitsa-Schmidt, S and Shohamy, E., (2000). Students' Motivation as a Function of  Language Learning: The Teaching of  Arabic in Israel. In Z. Dornyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.) Motivation and Second Language Acquisition. Honolulu, HI: University of  Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.

65. Shohamy, E. 2001. “The responsibility of  the language tester” in Cooper, R., Shohamy, E.and Walter, J. Papers in honor of  Bernard Spolsky.

66. Shohamy, Elana 2001. The relevance of  language testing to second language acquisition, 103-114. In Pürschel, Heiner & Ulrich Raatz (eds.) (2001) Tests and Translation: Papers in memory of  Christine Klein-Braley, Bochum, AKS-Verlag

67. Shohamy, E. (in press).  Assessment in multicultural societies:  Applying democratic principles and practices to language testing.  In B. Norton & K. Toohey (eds), Critical pedagogues and language learning:  Global perspectives.  New York/London:  Cambridge University Press.



D. Other publications

1. Encyclopedia items

Shohamy, E. 1997. “Language Assessment”.141-152 in Richard Tucker and David Corson, (eds.) Encyclopedia of  Language and Education, Volume 4, Kluwer Academic Publishers

Shohamy, E. 1999. “Impact (of  language tests)”. In Spolsky, B. (ed.) The Concise Encyclopedia of  Language and Linguistics, Elsevier Science Limited.


2. Invited position paper

Shohamy, E. and Spolsky B. 1994. Position paper on language policy in Israel

Requested by the Israeli Minister of  Education, Prof . Rubinstein (led to the introduction of  a new language policy in the Israeli school systems).

Shohamy, E. 2000. Issues in Benchmarking. 4-9 in Issues in English Language Benchmarking

Hong Kong Institute of  Education.

Shohamy, E. 2001. Inside the black box of  classroom languag testing. English Teachers' Journal, No. 53, October, 54-60.


3. Reports (partial list since 1993)

Shohamy, E. and others. 1993. 1994. Evaluation of  Intervention program of  teaching English in disadvantaged areas of  Tel Aviv and Jaffe. Report submitted to the Tel Aviv municipality.

Shohamy, E. and others. 1993, 1994, 1995. Evaluating teaching of  English at an early age in the city of  Tel Aviv. Three reports submitted to the Tel Aviv municipality.

Shohamy, E. and B. Spolsky and otherse, 1996. Language education in Israel. 5 reports on policy and practice of  five languages taught in Israel. Bar Ilan and Tel Aviv University. Reports submitted to the Ministry of  Education,

Spolsky, B, Shohamy, E., and others, 1997 Language education in Israel. 5 reports on policy and practice of  language policy in Israel. Bar Ilan and Tel Aviv University. Reports submitted to the Ministry of  Education,

Shohamy, E. and Donitsa-Schmidt, S. 1988. Jews vs. Arabs: Language Attitudes and Stereotypes. Reports submitted to the Shtainmintz center for peace. Tel Aviv University, 1998.

Shohamy E., Donitsa Schmidt, S. and others 1998. Language prof iciency of  immigrants at the work place. Report submitted to the Sapir center for research, Tel Aviv University. Summer, 1998.

Levin, T. Shohamy, E. Spolsky B. 2002. Academic achievement of  immigrant children in Israel

Report submitted to the Ministry of  Education

Ben Raphael, E. Shohamy, E. and Amara Muhammad. 2002. Linguistic landscape in Israel

(Reports submitted to the Shtainmintz center for peace. Tel Aviv Univer).


4. Handbook

Shohamy, E.,1985. A Practical Handbook for language testing for the foreign language teacher. Internal Press.


5. Newsletters

Spolsky, B. and Shohamy, E. 1998. Language policy in Israel. New Language Planning Newsletter 12 (4):1-4.


6. Invited plenary talks in major conferences (partial list since 1993)

1993, Finland – Conference on language testing

1993, Cambridge, Gillian – competence and performance in language testing

1995, Hong Kong - A multiplism approach to language assessment

(international conference on language testing and evaluation)

1996, Great Debate – Science or Art in language education, debate at the TESOL convention

March, 1997. Critical Language Testing and Beyond. Invited Plenary paper presented at the American Association of  Applied Linguistics (AAAL), Orlando, March, 1997.

May, 1997. The new language policy in Israel - from monolingualims to multilingualism? Brussels, conference on Contact and conflict.

November, 1997, Antwerpen The use of  tests for power and control 1998, Power and control in language testing - International conference on language education, Hong Kong.

July, 1998. Carleton University. The social responsibility of  the tester.

Summer, 1999. Keynote speech at the AILA convention, Tokyo, Japan, August 1999. Democratic and undemocratic practices of  language testing.

April 2001. Keynote in a conference on multilingualism in Denmark

May 2001. Keynote in the conference on teacher language education, Minneapolis.

October 2000. Key note in the conference on multilingualism in the Basque country.



E. Research projects

1982 - 1985

Development and research of  an alternative system for the

English Matriculation Examination (sponsored by the Israeli Ministry of  Education)

1984 - 1986

Research and development of  a new national battery for testing oral prof iciency tests for English as a foreign language at the end of  Israeli secondary schools

1984 - 1985

Development of  a monitoring system for achievement of  English as a foreign language for 7th and 10th grades for the city of  Tel Aviv

1987 - 1991

Research, development and implementation of  a diagnostic/feedback system for evaluating achievement in

Hebrew in Jewish Day schools in USA and Canada

1987 - 1988

Development and research of  an oral test in L1 (Hebrew) as part of  the matriculation examination (sponsored by the Ministry of  Education, Israel)

1988 - 1989

Development of  a semi-direct test for assessing Hebrew prof iciency (sponsored by the Center of  Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC)

1990 - 1992

Development and research of  a battery of  tests for assessing

Hebrew language of  adult immigrants to Israel
(sponsored by the Israeli Ministry of  Education)

1992 - 1994

Development of  a battery of  diagnostic tests for assessment of  the acquisition of  Hebrew of  children immigrants in elementary and secondary schools (sponsored by the Israeli Ministry of  Education)

1991 - 1992

Evaluation of  an intervention program for the teaching of  EFL in elementary schools in Jaffa (sponsored by the municipality of  Tel Aviv)


Research following achievements in teaching English early age.

1994 - 1997

Language policy in Israeli schools (study leading to the creation of  a new language policy in Israel (w/ Bernard Spolsky) funded by the Israeli Ministry of  Education.


Prof iles of  Israeli language situation (project completed for the IEA international project)

1995 - 1996

Attitudes, stereotypes and priorities of  Jews towards Arabic

and Arabs towards Hebrew (funded by the Steinmitz center).

1997 - 1998

Language prof iciency of  new immigrants at the workplace (supported by The Sapir Center, Tel Aviv University)

1998 - 1999

Evaluation of  teaching of  spoken Arabic in Tel Aviv schools

1998 - 2002

Academic achievements of  immigrant children in schools in Israel (a national study supported by the Israeli Ministry of  Education)

2000 - 2001

Linguistic landscape of  Hebrew and Arabic in Jewish and Arab towns in Israel (supported by the Steiinmitz center for Peace.

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